IDEA Categories of Disabilities

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IDEA Categories of Disabilities by Mind Map: IDEA Categories of Disabilities

1. Autism

1.1. Interventions and Accommodations

1.1.1. Step by step instructions

1.1.2. Information given verbally, visually and with physical support

1.1.3. Be clear en concrete (don’t rely too much on body language)

1.1.4. Give many opportunities for practice

1.1.5. Find strengths and build on these

1.1.6. Create opportunities for social and collaborative interactions in school

1.1.7. Have consistent routines and schedules

1.2. Assistive Technology

1.2.1. Picture communication board

1.2.2. Augmentative and alternative communication device

1.2.3. Collaborative virtual environments

2. Deaf-Blindness

2.1. Interventions and Accommodations:

2.1.1. One-on-one support (intervener, paraprofessional, interpreter)

2.1.2. Make sure there is sufficient light in the classroom

2.1.3. Accommodate space for guide dog if necessary

2.1.4. Make materials available early

2.1.5. Clear communication rules for small group projects

2.2. Assistive Technology

2.2.1. Use of augmentative and alternative communication systems

2.2.2. Allowed to take home technological devices

2.2.3. Braille note taker

2.2.4. Assistive learning device (small mic worn by teacher)

2.2.5. Use projector with large print on slides

3. Deafness

3.1. Interventions and Accommodations

3.1.1. Services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language

3.1.2. Favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading

3.1.3. Captioned films/videos

3.1.4. Instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language

3.2. Assistive Technology

3.2.1. Closed captioned videos

3.2.2. Text Telephone (Relay services)

3.2.3. Cell phone/pager/texting device

3.2.4. Print copies

3.2.5. Electronic note taking (voice recognition devices)

4. Developmental Delay

4.1. Interventions and Accommodations

4.1.1. Giving the student extra time to complete assignments or tests

4.1.2. Breaking up testing over several days

4.1.3. Working in a small group

4.1.4. Working one-on-one with the teacher

4.2. Assistive Technology

4.2.1. Printed copies of teacher’s lecture notes

4.2.2. Touchscreen and interactive whiteboards

5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. Interventions and Accommodations

5.1.1. Positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports

5.1.2. Set up goals aimed at social interactions

5.1.3. Use role-playing situations

5.1.4. Use seating arrangement to encourage social interaction

5.1.5. Set clear rules and expectations with visual stimulating material

5.1.6. Highly structured environment with clearly set boundaries

5.1.7. Establish a quiet cool off area

5.1.8. Teach self-talk to relieve stress and anxiety

5.1.9. Teach and put in place self-monitoring and self-control techniques

5.1.10. Provide time for relaxation techniques

5.2. Assistive Technology

5.2.1. Use technology to create an engaging and stimulating environment

5.2.2. Interactive toys

5.3. Case study: Megan

6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. Interventions and Accommodations

6.1.1. Regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist

6.1.2. Amplification systems

6.1.3. Assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction

6.1.4. All that apply for deafness also apply for hearing impairment

6.2. Assistive Technology

6.2.1. Sound field amplification systems

6.2.2. Hearing loop

6.2.3. All that apply for deafness also apply for hearing impairment

7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. Interventions and Accommodations

7.1.1. Supplementary aids and services

7.1.2. Be as concrete as possible (demonstrate rather than simply explaining verbally)

7.1.3. Break tasks into small steps

7.1.4. Give immediate feedback

7.1.5. Reducing the difficulty of assignments

7.1.6. Reducing the reading level

7.1.7. Using a student/peer tutor

7.2. Assistive Technology

7.2.1. Using Smartphones for organization and scheduling

7.2.2. Computer assisted learning

7.2.3. Interactive toys (robots)

7.3. Case study: Nick

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. Interventions and Accommodations

8.1.1. “Major life activities” (manual tasks, speaking and communication, walking, bending standing, etc.)

8.1.2. Use IEP to make accommodations

8.1.3. Allow partial participation

8.1.4. Practice and reinforce learning opportunities

8.1.5. Encourage student’s independence

8.2. Assistive Technology

8.2.1. Accessible instructional materials

8.2.2. A combination of assistive technology used for the different disabilities

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. Interventions and Accommodations

9.1.1. Allowing answers to be given orally or dictated

9.1.2. Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements

9.1.3. Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

9.2. Assistive Technology

9.2.1. Giving copies of teacher’s lecture notes

9.2.2. Using a word processor for written work

9.2.3. Adapted equipment, such as a special seat or a cut-out cup for drinking

9.2.4. Augmentative communication and other assistive devices

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. Interventions and Accommodations

10.1.1. Homebound instructor

10.1.2. Constant communication with student when absent from school

10.1.3. Make materials available in a timely manner

10.1.4. Flexible expectation for assignments

10.2. Assistive Technology

10.2.1. Use technology for communication when student is absent

10.2.2. Online platforms for sharing resources and instructions

10.2.3. Online platforms for collaborative work

10.3. Case Study: Rafaella

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. Interventions and Accommodations

11.1.1. Breaking tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing

11.1.2. Giving the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests

11.1.3. Letting the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities

11.1.4. Letting the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate

11.1.5. Direct instruction

11.1.6. Learning strategy instruction

11.1.7. Using a sequential, simultaneous structured multi-sensory approach

11.1.8. Supply regular, quality feedback

11.1.9. Use diagrams, graphics and pictures to augment what they say in words

11.1.10. Provide ample independent, well-designed intensive practice

11.2. Assistive Technology

11.2.1. Specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks

11.2.2. Software that recognizes speech

11.2.3. Tape recorder

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. Interventions and Accommodations

12.1.1. Reinforce communication attempts (e.g. Their gestures, partial verbalizations) when the student is non-verbal or emerging verbal

12.1.2. Encourage reading and writing daily

12.1.3. Work at the student's pace

12.1.4. Present only one concept at a time

12.1.5. Incorporate vocabulary with unit being taught

12.1.6. Provide fun activities that are functional and practical

12.2. Assistive Technology

12.2.1. Electronic communication system

12.2.2. Specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks

12.2.3. Use computers in the classroom for language enhancement

12.2.4. Use tactile and visual cues (e.g., pictures, 3-d objects)

13. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

13.1. Interventions and Accommodations

13.1.1. The teacher or presenter should verbalize all information as it is written on the board or overhead

13.1.2. Avoid activities requiring extensive visual scanning

13.1.3. Extended time on test

13.1.4. Preferential seating, facing away from windows

13.2. Assistive Technology

13.2.1. Braille note taker

13.2.2. Braille display

13.2.3. Screen reader

13.2.4. Providing audiotaped lectures or books

13.2.5. Using large print books, Braille, or books on CD (digital text)

13.2.6. Isolation headphones

14. Traumatic Brain Injury

14.1. Interventions and Accommodations

14.1.1. Give directions one step at a time

14.1.2. Show the student how to perform new tasks

14.1.3. Flexible expectations

14.1.4. Allow additional time to complete in-class assignments and tests

14.1.5. Provide student with instructor’s notes or help student obtain quality notes from other students

14.1.6. Reduce quantity of work required, in favor of quality

14.1.7. Provide preferential seating at or near the front of the classroom

14.1.8. For lectures, provide student with an outline or study guide when available

14.2. Assistive Technology

14.2.1. Portable computer with spelling and grammar checks for assignments and note-taking

14.2.2. Dictionary or thesaurus for assignments