Special Education Categories and Accommodations

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Special Education Categories and Accommodations by Mind Map: Special Education Categories and Accommodations

1. Deaf-blindness

1.1. For children who are deaf and blind, the hand-over-hand or hand-under-hand guidance is a great way to assist their needs when exploring a new object.

1.2. Causes

1.3. Educational Challenges

2. Autism (or Autism Spectrum Disorder)

2.1. For autistic children have difficulty in understanding verbal information, using simple language or symbols is a method a teacher can use to help them understand. This strategy is explained as an important method in this video about teaching students with autism.

2.1.1. When I was teaching children with autism, I used cards that showed them the class rules. When the teacher told them to be quite and listen to the teacher, I would show them a card of a student in their chair and a card with an ear on it. This helped them understand what they were meant to do. Moreover, the child's school teacher used this method in her classroom and told me that it helped not only the autistic student but all the students in her class to follow instructions.

2.2. Characteristics

2.2.1. Educational Challenges

2.3. Subcategories

3. Deafness

3.1. Accommodating the needs of children who are deaf may be difficult for the teacher however, preparing captions in videos used in class or have someone interpret the lessons in sign language will support their needs.

3.1.1. At one of the primary schools I attended, there was a special needs class for children who were deaf. Most of our classes were separate however, during assembly, there was always someone who translated in sign language and all the students were to sing the national anthem while sing it in sign language. We also had sign language lessons and had activity days where we buddied up with the deaf students. I remember not thinking about this as unique or negatively differentiating such students. I believe I felt this way for the school encouraged collaboration with and equality for all the students.

3.2. Characteristics

3.3. Educational Challenges

4. Developmental Delay

4.1. Hands-on learning, or manipulative, can help a child with developmental delay learn. For example, using wooden blocks provide a tangible example of a concept learnt in maths.

4.1.1. In order to teach maths, I used lego blocks to show how things increase by addition and multiplication and how things decrease in subtraction. I also used lego blocks to explain fractions for the blocks can be taken apart which gives a more concrete example of division. By using blocks, students were able to understand the concept of numbers by attaching the number "2" to the actual amount this "2" represents. For children with a developmental delay in maths, most cannot understand maths for they cannot link the number and the amount together. Thus, providing tangible material can help such understanding.

5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. For children of emotional disturbance often have a low self-esteem, it is important for teachers to give their students immediate encouragement and also feedback which is specific.

5.1.1. When I marked the work for such children, I only ticked the right answers and left the wrong answers as they were. Many students who have emotional disturbance, negative marks on a test can lower their esteem. Therefore, I was careful to not make their mistakes visually obvious.

5.2. Types

5.3. Educational Challenges

6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. Children with hearing impairments can be supported in the same way as deaf students. Other strategies include allowing them to sit in a seat where they can lip read what the teacher is saying or allow the use of an amplifier.

6.2. Subcategories

6.3. Educational Challenges

7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. For children with intellectual disabilities, it is necessary to break tasks (especially when long or new) into simple, small steps. Demonstrating each step, then having the student do the steps one at a time, will help the child understand and process task instructions much easily. A great way is to prepare a check list of what will be learnt in class each day and ticking them off as they are accomplished.

7.2. Chracteristics

7.3. Educational Challenges

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. Multiple disabilities can be a very difficult characteristic for both the teacher and the child for there are multiple factors that are causing learning difficulties. Therefore, assistive technology can be effective to overcome functional and communicative limitations.

8.2. Characteristics

8.3. Educational Challenges

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. Assistive Technology such as a speech recognition software, screen reading software, and alternative communication devices such as communication boards, can help children with orthopedic impairments in the classroom.

9.2. Educational Challenges

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. For students with ADHD, it is recommended to create a schedule that clearly describes each activity. These schedules can also be used to direct the student back on to their task.

10.2. Characteristics of ADHD

10.3. Educational Challenges

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. For students who have difficulties in using language, allowing the use of a computer for writing with a software that does grammar and spell checks, will allow them to learn without the disadvantages in learning they face due to their disability.

11.1.1. In the tutoring school I worked at for children of special needs, we encouraged the use of an iPad in our classes, and at home for studying. A factor for not being able to study in school was due to the fact that they could not write what the teacher writes on the board or merely cannot remember Japanese characters. For such children to be able to focus and participate in their studies, we used an iPad to let them learn without the barrier of their disability.

11.2. Other ways to accommodate the learning of children with learning disabilities is by modifying the way of teaching into one that fits their needs.

11.2.1. One of my students had a problem with comprehending written words and numbers. She would look at a word or a number and comprehend it as something else. For example, she would look at the number 13 and comprehend it as 31. This was because she would acknowledge the numbers 1 and 3 when she saw the number 13. In order words, because she saw 13 and two separate numbers, she would accidentally mix the order up and think it was 31. Therefore, I told her to trace or rewrite the number (or word) so that she would look at the number as a whole. This helped her greatly with her maths skills.

11.3. Characteristics

11.4. Educational Challenges

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. There are two major types of assistive technology for students with speech impairments. One is the use of computer software to develop their speech and language skills by using graphic presentations and synthesized speech. Another type is augmentative or alternative communication (AAC). AAC uses symbols, and techniques to support the child's communication, such as sign language and various communication boards.

12.1.1. The use of assistive technology is a great solution however, at my former work place, we used methods that would help children with their pronunciation. For children with a speech impairment, I taught pronunciation by using utensils such as a straw to strength the lungs and coordinate the air needed to pronoun words, and also put jam on the child's mouth to exercise the tongue. Furthermore, for children who are having severe difficulties, I used speech cards and taught them hand gestures in order to be able to communicate the words they cannot say.

12.2. Educational Challenges

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. For students with TBI, three major types of assistive technology can be used; devices for memory and organization to help students with memory and organization difficulties, devices for access Information that support access to educational material, and devices for positioning and mobility that help student participation.

13.2. Charactertistics

13.3. Educational Challenges

14. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

14.1. Simply modifying the presentation of material in the classroom can help children who have trouble with seeing. For example, writing on the board in big letters or using the colors which the student can see more clearly is a great way to start. Furthermore, providing texts written in braille for students who are blind will provide a more equal learning environment.

14.1.1. During a lesson where I used colored pencils to teach, one of my students seemed to be very confused. When I asked him what was wrong, he told me that he could not understand why I was using the same colors to explain different things. This was when me and his parents found out that he had difficulties with seeing color. He soon got glasses to help me see colors but also in class, I printed the material we would use in class in red for that was the color he can see clearest. Therefore, color coding to make things easier to understand may be causing difficulties for others.

14.2. Charactertistics

14.3. Educational Challenges

15. [ References ] Edwards, C. Disabilities Notebook EDU115. Retrieved 13th Oct from https://sites.google.com/a/ucdavis.edu/teaching-students-with-disabilities/ NICHCY. (2012). Categories of Disabilities Under IDEA. Center for Parents Information and Resources. Retrieved 13th Oct from http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/categories/ Project IDEAL. (2013). Disability Categories. Texas Council for Developmental Disabilities. Retrieved 14th Oct from http://www.projectidealonline.org/v/speech-language-impairments/ Special Education Guide. (2016) Disability Profiles. Retrieved 16th Oct from http://www.specialeducationguide.com/disability-profiles/