Common Macromolecules

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Common Macromolecules by Mind Map: Common Macromolecules

1. caused by interactions between R groups

1.1. hydrophobic interactions

1.2. van der Waals interactions

1.3. hydrogen bonds

1.4. disulfide bridges

2. carbohydrates

2.1. monosaccharides

2.1.1. glucose, fructose, galatose

2.2. disaccharides

2.2.1. two monosaccharides joined

2.2.2. maltose = glucose + glucose

2.2.3. sucrose = glucose + fructose

2.3. polysaccharides

2.3.1. multiple monosaccharides

2.3.2. functions energy storage animals = glycogen plants = starch structural support plants = cellulose exoskeleton = chitin

3. lipids

3.1. structure

3.1.1. not based on monomer/polymers

3.1.2. grouped together b/c they are hydrophobic

3.1.3. structure glycerol fatty acids

3.2. types

3.2.1. fat/triglyceride structure 1 glycerol molecule 3 fatty acid chains function

3.2.2. phospholipid structure 1 glycerol two fatty acids and one phosphate cell wall

3.2.3. cholesterol function steroid hormone

4. proteins

4.1. structure

4.1.1. amino acid functional (R) group central carbon amino group carboxyl group

4.1.2. polypeptide/protein primary structure sequence of amino acids held together by peptide bonds secondary structure alpha-helix, beta-pleated sheet held together by H-bonds between amino acids(folded) tertiary structure more complex shapes quaternary structure association of two or more polypeptide chains into one large protein

4.1.3. importance of structure denaturing: Changing PH Adding salt Changing temperature Changing the  environment from polar to non-polar Breaking disulfide bridge

4.2. function

4.2.1. enzymes

4.2.2. structural

4.2.3. storage

4.2.4. transport

4.2.5. hormones

4.2.6. movement

4.2.7. defensive

5. nucleic acids

5.1. structure

5.1.1. nucleotide 5 carbon sugar nitrogenous base (Adenine/Guanine),(Cytosine/Thymine/uracil) phosphate group ATP is made of Adenine base connected to ribose sugar and three phosphate groups

5.1.2. nucleic acid

5.2. function

5.2.1. DNA(AGCT)

5.2.2. RNA(AGCU)

6. assembly

6.1. size

6.1.1. monomers small, simple "pieces" basic "building block"

6.1.2. polymers larger, more complex built out of many monomers joined together

6.2. chemical reactions

6.2.1. dehydration sythesis(condensation ) bonds two monomers together or a monomer to a polymer take away one water molecule

6.2.2. hydrolysis rxn adds a water to split a chemical bond separates monomers from each other