Common Macromolecules

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Common Macromolecules by Mind Map: Common Macromolecules

1. caused by interactions between R groups

1.1. hydrophobic interactions

1.2. van der Waals interactions

1.3. hydrogen bonds

1.4. disulfide bridges

2. carbohydrates

2.1. monosaccharides

2.1.1. glucose, fructose, galatose

2.2. disaccharides

2.2.1. two monosaccharides joined

2.2.2. maltose = glucose + glucose

2.2.3. sucrose = glucose + fructose

2.3. polysaccharides

2.3.1. multiple monosaccharides

2.3.2. functions

2.3.2.1. energy storage

2.3.2.1.1. animals = glycogen

2.3.2.1.2. plants = starch

2.3.2.2. structural support

2.3.2.2.1. plants = cellulose

2.3.2.2.2. exoskeleton = chitin

3. lipids

3.1. structure

3.1.1. not based on monomer/polymers

3.1.2. grouped together b/c they are hydrophobic

3.1.3. structure

3.1.3.1. glycerol

3.1.3.2. fatty acids

3.2. types

3.2.1. fat/triglyceride

3.2.1.1. structure

3.2.1.1.1. 1 glycerol molecule

3.2.1.1.2. 3 fatty acid chains

3.2.1.2. function

3.2.2. phospholipid

3.2.2.1. structure

3.2.2.1.1. 1 glycerol

3.2.2.1.2. two fatty acids and one phosphate

3.2.2.2. cell wall

3.2.3. cholesterol

3.2.3.1. function

3.2.3.1.1. steroid hormone

4. proteins

4.1. structure

4.1.1. amino acid

4.1.1.1. functional (R) group

4.1.1.2. central carbon

4.1.1.3. amino group

4.1.1.4. carboxyl group

4.1.2. polypeptide/protein

4.1.2.1. primary structure

4.1.2.1.1. sequence of amino acids

4.1.2.1.2. held together by peptide bonds

4.1.2.2. secondary structure

4.1.2.2.1. alpha-helix, beta-pleated sheet

4.1.2.2.2. held together by H-bonds between amino acids(folded)

4.1.2.3. tertiary structure

4.1.2.3.1. more complex shapes

4.1.2.4. quaternary structure

4.1.2.4.1. association of two or more polypeptide chains into one large protein

4.1.3. importance of structure

4.1.3.1. denaturing:

4.1.3.1.1. Changing PH

4.1.3.1.2. Adding salt

4.1.3.1.3. Changing temperature

4.1.3.1.4. Changing the  environment from polar to non-polar

4.1.3.1.5. Breaking disulfide bridge

4.2. function

4.2.1. enzymes

4.2.2. structural

4.2.3. storage

4.2.4. transport

4.2.5. hormones

4.2.6. movement

4.2.7. defensive

5. nucleic acids

5.1. structure

5.1.1. nucleotide

5.1.1.1. 5 carbon sugar

5.1.1.2. nitrogenous base (Adenine/Guanine),(Cytosine/Thymine/uracil)

5.1.1.3. phosphate group

5.1.1.3.1. ATP is made of Adenine base connected to ribose sugar and three phosphate groups

5.1.2. nucleic acid

5.2. function

5.2.1. DNA(AGCT)

5.2.2. RNA(AGCU)

6. assembly

6.1. size

6.1.1. monomers

6.1.1.1. small, simple "pieces"

6.1.1.2. basic "building block"

6.1.2. polymers

6.1.2.1. larger, more complex

6.1.2.2. built out of many monomers joined together

6.2. chemical reactions

6.2.1. dehydration sythesis(condensation )

6.2.1.1. bonds two monomers together or a monomer to a polymer

6.2.1.2. take away one water molecule

6.2.2. hydrolysis rxn

6.2.2.1. adds a water to split a chemical bond

6.2.2.2. separates monomers from each other