Criminal Law

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Criminal Law by Mind Map: Criminal Law

1. only reproachable guilt

1.1. intent (dolus)

1.1.1. Wilful intent purpose

1.1.2. aware of high degree of probability

1.1.3. recklessness: dolus eventualis

1.2. negligence (culpa)

1.2.1. conscious negligence (knowledge)

1.2.2. unconscious negligence carelessness or thoughtlessness

2. objectives

2.1. retributive justice

2.1.1. punishment

2.2. prevention

2.2.1. general prevention others refrain from crime

2.2.2. specific prevention perpetrator refrains in future

3. principle of legality

3.1. legal basis needed

3.1.1. nulla poena principle no punishment without law

3.1.2. nullum crimen principle no crime without law

3.1.3. Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine praevia lege poenali There is no crime nor can there be punishment, when there was no law at that time

3.2. development

3.2.1. social contract made by society when creating a state punishment when individuals know "terms" of that contract

3.3. legislation

3.3.1. art. 16 Constitution

3.3.2. art. 1 Criminal Code

3.3.3. art. 7 ECHR

3.4. includes

3.4.1. lex scripta written description

3.4.2. lex preaevia no retroactive effect

3.4.3. lex certa precise law and precise application

3.4.4. no reasoning by analogy

4. substantive aspects

4.1. requirements of the offence

4.2. liability

4.2.1. guilt blameworthiness defences

4.2.2. unlawfulness defences case law legislation

5. procedural aspects

5.1. public prosecutor (OM)

5.1.1. only he can start prosecutions and has discretion art. 167 Sv

5.2. Court

5.2.1. decides if applicant can be charged

5.3. Preliminary questions

5.3.1. 1. Validity of summons? indictent art. 261 Sv facts mentioned? offence mentioned

5.3.2. 2. Court competent? type of court art. 45 Judiciary Organisation Act: district court for serious offences (subdistrict court for minor offences) location

5.3.3. 3. Has the OM the right to institute proceedings? defendant already had a trial for that offence art. 68 Sr defendant still alive art. 69 Sr time limitations art. 70 Sr old enough art. 486 Sr

5.3.4. 4. Grounds for suspension of prosecution mentally capable art. 16 Sv

5.4. fundamental questions

5.4.1. 5. Indictment proven? no? trial ends

5.4.2. 6. Do the facts fall within the scope of the offence? no? dismissal of all charges

5.4.3. 7. Is the defendant punishable? No excuses or justifications? yes, justification or excuse: dismissal of all charges

5.4.4. 8. Which sanction? art. 9 Sr