ELL Standards Comparison

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ELL Standards Comparison by Mind Map: ELL Standards Comparison

1. New York State

1.1. Standard 1 - Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for information and understanding (NYS, 2009).

1.1.1. Identify and use reading and listening strategies to make text comprehensible and meaningful (NYS, 2009).

1.1.2. Read, gather, view, listen to, organize, discuss, and interpret information related to academic content areas from various sources (NYS, 2009).

1.1.3. Select information appropriate to the purpose of the investigation, and relate ideas from one written or spoken source to another (NYS, 2009).

1.1.4. Compare, contrast, and categorize, to gain a deeper understanding of information and objects (NYS, 2009). Strategy 1: Students examine pictures in, and listen to and/or read, informational texts about the environment. Students cut out magazine pictures that illustrate environmental concepts. Class collaborates on making a collage, adding words or descriptive phrases. Class uses a graphic organizer provided by the teacher to organize information in pictures and simple phrases (e.g., sources of pollution, effects, helpful measures) (NYS, 2009).

1.1.5. Formulate, ask, and respond to questions to obtain, clarify, and extend information and meaning (NYS, 2009).

1.1.6. Make and support inferences about information and ideas with reference to features in oral and written text (NYS, 2009).

1.1.7. Present information clearly in a variety of oral and written forms for different audiences and purposes related to all academic content areas (NYS, 2009).

1.1.8. Select a focus, organization, and point of view for oral and written presentations (NYS, 2009). Strategy 2: Students look through books (e.g., This Is My House) to find different pictures of homes. Students and teacher brainstorm words for different homes and their parts, as well as colors and other characteristics, and create a word wall. Each student draws a picture of his/her home, labeling parts and writing his/her full address. Students use a template to write a few simple sentences to describe their home and what they like about it. Then they share their work in class (NYS, 2009).

1.1.9. Convey information, using a variety of organizational patterns and structures (NYS, 2009).

1.1.10. Distinguish between fact and opinion, and relevant and irrelevant information (NYS, 2009).

1.1.11. Use the process of prewriting, drafting, revising, and proofreading (the “writing process”) to produce well-constructed informational texts (NYS, 2009).

1.1.12. Convey information and ideas through spoken and written language, using conventions and features of American English (NYS, 2009).

1.1.13. Engage in collaborative activities through a variety of student groupings to read, gather, share, discuss, interpret, organize, and present information (NYS, 2009). Strategy 3: Using a template in the shape of the school, students go on a guided tour of the building to help create a map of the school. Map will include important places as indicated by symbols (e.g., nurse’s office, main office, library, bathrooms, gym, cafeteria), as well as a key. Students write a brief introduction about their school. Peer review will be part of the writing process (NYS, 2009).

1.1.14. Consult print and nonprint resources (e.g., audio/visual media, family) in the native language when needed (NYS, 2009).

1.1.15. Apply self-monitoring and self-correcting strategies for accurate language production and oral and written presentation, using established criteria for effective presentation of information (NYS, 2009).

1.1.16. Apply learning strategies to acquire information and make oral and written texts comprehensible and meaningful (NYS, 2009).

1.2. Standard 2 - Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for literary response, enjoyment, and expression (NYS, 2009).

1.2.1. Read, listen to, view, write about, and discuss a variety of literature of different genres (NYS, 2009). Strategy 1: Teacher reads a simple fable or legend (e.g., Aesop, Leonni, Steig, Noble). Teacher develops a story map and identifies the problem and the solution. Class discusses what lesson/moral is taught. Process is repeated with additional fables/legends. When students are familiar with the genre, teacher may stop during a reading and ask students to predict a solution. Students draw pictures of a fable or legend that they think teaches an important lesson, and write brief captions (NYS, 2009).

1.2.2. Identify and use reading and listening strategies to make literary text comprehensible and meaningful (NYS, 2009).

1.2.3. Recognize some features that distinguish some genres and use those features to aid comprehension (NYS, 2009).

1.2.4. Locate and identify key literary elements in texts and relate those elements to those in other works and to students’ own experiences (NYS, 2009). Strategy 2: Teacher/students select a favorite author for an author study. Students read or are read a story written by the author selected. On a teacher-made chart students identify characters, setting, problem, and solution. Students respond to book by illustrating their favorite part and by writing a caption or acting out a scene. They repeat the pro- cess with additional books from the selection. In conclusion, students review all the books read and each chooses his/her favorite book and explains choice (NYS, 2009).

1.2.5. Make predictions, inferences, and deductions, and discuss the meaning of literary works with some attention to meaning beyond the literal level, to understand and interpret text presented orally and in written form (NYS, 2009).

1.2.6. Read aloud with confidence, accuracy, and fluency (NYS, 2009).

1.2.7. Compose and present personal and formal responses to published literature and the work of peers, referring to details and features of text (NYS, 2009).

1.2.8. Create personal stories, poems, and songs, including those that reflect traditional and popular American culture; use appropriate vocabulary and elements of the literature students have read or heard (NYS, 2009).

1.2.9. Engage in collaborative activities through a variety of student groupings to create and respond to literature (NYS, 2009).

1.2.10. Create, discuss, interpret, and respond to literary works, using appropriate and effective vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation in writing, and using appropriate vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation in speaking (NYS, 2009).

1.2.11. Apply self-monitoring and self-correcting strategies while reading, viewing, discussing, listening to, or producing literary texts and essays (NYS, 2009).

1.2.12. Apply learning strategies to comprehend and make inferences about literature and produce literary responses (NYS, 2009). Strategy 3: Class reads or listens to a few stories with dialogue (e.g., Frog and Toad, Three Billy Goats Gruff). Teacher converts stories to simple scripts. Students work in small groups to learn parts and present the skits. Teacher provides a simple checklist to guide and evaluate the skits (NYS, 2009).

1.3. Standard 3 - Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for critical analysis and evaluation (NYS, 2009).

1.3.1. Form and express responses to a variety of literary, informational, and persuasive material through reading, listening, viewing, discussing, and writing; use details and evidence as support (NYS, 2009). Strategy 1: After becoming somewhat familiar with the basic content and format of a newspaper, students cut out pictures of people work- ing. In groups, students place pictures on posters and label the occupations. Students talk about the jobs of people they know. They choose one job and act it out, and the class guesses the occupation (NYS, 2009).

1.3.2. Evaluate the quality and dependability of written or spoken texts and visual presentations, on the basis of established criteria; and evaluate the logic and believability of claims made in persuasive material (NYS, 2009).

1.3.3. Recognize personal point of view in self and others in discussing, interpreting, and evaluating information (NYS, 2009). Strategy 2: Teacher presents the Pocahontas story, using a documentary and/or picture books. In groups, students select an incident to illustrate. With teacher’s help, the class discusses and evaluates the actions of the characters in each scene. Each group draws the characters in their scene and attaches language bubbles from the information collected by the teacher (NYS, 2009).

1.3.4. Evaluate students’ own and others’ work, individually and collaboratively, on the basis of a variety of criteria (NYS, 2009).

1.3.5. Recognize and explain how structural features affect readers’ and listeners’ understanding and appreciation of text (NYS, 2009).

1.3.6. Speak and write, using the conventions and features of American English, to effectively influence an audience (e.g., to persuade, negotiate, argue) (NYS, 2009).

1.3.7. Engage in collaborative activities through a variety of groupings to discuss, share, reflect on, develop, and express, and to interpret opinions and evaluations about a variety of experiences, ideas, and information (NYS, 2009). Strategy 3: Teacher models browsing through a magazine, pointing out to students practical/needed and luxury/wanted items. Working in small groups, students cut out pictures of items from magazines. They select five items in each category (needs, wants). Items are displayed on posters. The groups collaborate to prepare a presentation for class, noting reasons for choosing items in each category (NYS, 2009).

1.3.8. Apply self-monitoring and self-correcting strategies, using established criteria for effective oral and written presentation and standards for a particular genre (e.g., debate, speech, argument), to adjust presentation and language production to effectively express opinions and evaluations (NYS, 2009).

1.3.9. Apply learning strategies to examine, interpret, and evaluate a variety of materials (NYS, 2009).

1.4. Standard 4 - Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for classroom and social interaction (NYS, 2009).

1.4.1. Use a variety of oral, print, and electronic forms for social communication and for writing to or for self, applying the conventions of social writing (NYS, 2009).

1.4.2. Describe, read about, participate in, or recommend a favorite activity, book, song, or other interest to various audiences (NYS, 2009). Strategy 1: Students brainstorm school services that they would like to see established (e.g., new computer lab, art center, band room). In small groups, students write the procedures for using such a service. Students present the procedures to the class and discuss alternatives and recommendations for improvements. Written recommendations and procedures for the most popular services may be sent to principal (NYS, 2009).

1.4.3. Request and provide information and assistance, orally or in writing, for personal, social, and academic purposes (NYS, 2009).

1.4.4. Listen attentively and take turns speaking when engaged in pair, group, or full-class discussions on personal, social, and academic topics (NYS, 2009).

1.4.5. Explain actions, choices, and decisions in social and academic situations (NYS, 2009).

1.4.6. Understand and use a variety of oral communication strategies in American English for various social and academic purposes (NYS, 2009).

1.4.7. Follow oral and written directions to participate in classroom and social activities (NYS, 2009). Strategy 2: Students select magazine or newspaper pictures/photographs to illustrate a concept that they are studying in social studies (e.g., urban, suburban, or rural living). Students create a collage to demonstrate the concept, asking the teacher’s help with vocabulary if needed. Pictures are displayed. Teacher describes one or two, and students guess which picture is being described. Students take turns describing their select- ed pictures for others to guess (NYS, 2009).

1.4.8. Negotiate and manage interactions to accomplish social and classroom tasks (NYS, 2009).

1.4.9. Use appropriate vocabulary, expressions, language, routines, and interaction styles for various audiences and formal and informal social or school situations (NYS, 2009).

1.4.10. Demonstrate appropriate classroom behaviors (e.g., participating in small group and whole class discussions, being courteous, respecting the person and property of others) (NYS, 2009).

1.4.11. Discover alternative ways of saying things in social and classroom interactions (NYS, 2009). Strategy 3: After examining a variety of thank-you notes, teacher records students’ analyses of the similarities and differences in the notes with respect to language and form. The class brainstorms the language and form of a thank-you card that would be appropriate to send to a family member or friend for a recently received birthday or holiday gift. The teacher records their ideas and students use this list to write and illustrate the card. Then they send it to the addressee (NYS, 2009).

1.4.12. Apply self-monitoring and self-correcting strategies in social and classroom interactions (NYS, 2009).

1.5. Standard 5 - Students will demonstrate cross-cultural knowledge and understanding (NYS, 2009).

1.5.1. Demonstrate familiarity with cultural and language patterns and norms in American English (NYS, 2009). Strategy 1: Teacher gradually introduces a variety of American games (e.g., Simon Says, I Spy, Bingo) and/or board games (e.g., Chutes and Ladders, Candy Land, Dominoes). If possible, students are paired with native English speakers while learning to play the games. Teacher conducts a survey of favorites and helps students make bar graphs. Students take turns bringing in or demonstrating games played in their native cultures, and all students may participate in the games. Resources may include parents, Internet, or books such as Multicultural Game Book (NYS, 2009).

1.5.2. Demonstrate familiarity with a broad range of U.S. cultural and political referents through institutions, functions, and processes at the local and national levels (NYS, 2009).

1.5.3. Recognize and share cross-cultural experiences, and ideas, and connect with those of others (NYS, 2009).

1.5.4. Interpret and demonstrate knowledge of nonverbal and oral communication features, and understand the contexts in which they are used appropriately (NYS, 2009).

1.5.5. Read, listen to, and discuss myths, folktales, and literature from the United States and international regions and cultures, including the students’ own, and identify similarities and differences among them (NYS, 2009). Strategy 2: Students select one American holiday and a corresponding holiday from their country (e.g., 4th of July and Cinco de Mayo) and compare/contrast these holidays by researching their history and purpose. Students compile information into a book- let on international holidays for school or class library (NYS, 2009).

1.5.6. Recognize and demonstrate an appreciation of some commonalities and distinctions across cultures and groups (differentiated by gender, ability, generations, etc.) including the students’ own (NYS, 2009).

2. British Columbia

2.1. Primary

2.1.1. Reading Recognizes letters of the Roman alphabet (as distinct from the elements of other writing systems). Recognizes some words by memory-sight vocabulary. Derives understanding mainly from illustrations and graphics (BC, 1999). Strategy 1 - Use a lot of visuals with new vocabulary to help build a relationship between the two. Supplement vocabulary learning with L1.

2.1.2. Writing May be preliterate or semi-literate in a first language. May not attempt to write letters or words. Relies on drawing or other visual representations to convey much of the meaning (prompting may be required for drawing). May give a single letter to represent a word (BC, 1999). Strategy 2 - Use drawing matching assignments to link vocabulary to their drawings to help create meaning.

2.1.3. Oral Expression Understanding limited: may range from no comprehension to understanding key words or short phrases. Requires significant wait time to formulate a response (BC, 1999). Strategy 3 - Allow for extra wait time to responses, or let them use writing to help answer questions. Work in small groups so they are more comfortable using oral language.

2.2. Intermediate

2.2.1. Reading Level 1 - Begins to develop a sight vocabulary of frequently used words. May be able to sequence illustrations and graphics to retell a story (BC, 1999). Level 2 - Asks for help to gain meaning. Has a limited sight vocabulary of frequently used words. Begins to read simple texts on an increasing range of topics (BC, 1999). Level 3 - Checks comprehension and corrects errors, with direction. Is able to predict story events (e.g., “What do you think will happen next?”) in simple texts, with support (BC, 1999). Strategy 1 - Use reading check-ins and follow up on comprehension while student is reading. Help them understand the main ideas and make inferences. Level 4 - Uses questioning (who, what, when, where, why) as a pre-reading strategy, with direction. Reads for information, with assistance. Often requires direction or prompting to cite relevant details or give reasons in answers and explanations (BC, 1999).

2.2.2. Writing Level 1 - Teacher must consult the student to comprehend the intended meaning. Repeats phrases and uses patterned sentences. Frequently uses phonetic spelling that reflects personal pronunciation (BC, 1999). Level 2 - Begins to make connections between background knowledge, experience, and new information to generate personal and content-area text, with instructional support (BC, 1999). Strategy 2 - Use KWL charts to activate their prior knowledge before and after reading a topic to help them organize their writing. Level 3 - Continues to make connections between background knowledge, experience and new information to generate personal and content-area text, with modelling. Is unable to express abstract thoughts due to limited command of language (BC, 1999). Level 4 - Makes connections between background knowledge, experience and new information to generate personal and content-area text. Links some ideas with suitable conjunctions (BC, 1999).

2.2.3. Oral Expression Level 1 - Recognizes and understands phrases and includes simple sentences in context, with repetition, gestures, translation. Often speaks very quietly or in a whisper (BC, 1999). Level 2 - Compensates for limited vocabulary by using known vocabulary and/or circumlocutions. Uses word order in English that reflects first language characteristics (BC, 1999). Level 3 - Uses content specific language with some errors. Generally uses correct word order. May make grammatical errors that can impede meaning (BC, 1999). Level 4 - May use a wide range of vocabulary with flexibility. Occasionally makes pronunciation, grammar, and word omission errors, but meaning is generally clear (BC, 1999). Strategy 3 - Use scripts to help students practice proper spoken grammar and repetition for punctuation. A play would make this repetition more interesting then just reading, as well.

2.3. Secondary

2.3.1. Reading Level 1 - Is developing strategies to aid comprehension (e.g., sight words, vocabulary review). Begins to be aware of the elements of a story. Begins to answer literal questions (who, what, where, when, how?). Begins to connect personal experience with a read story (BC, 1999). Level 2 - Begins to understand simple content-based materials where background information has been provided. Answers literal questions (BC, 1999). Strategy 1 - Use graphic organizers for writing down ideas, characters, and other details from a story or writing to help organize the reading and answer comprehension questions. Level 3 - Generally understands simple content-based materials where background information has been provided. Is usually able to convey emotional responses or opinions when reading literary text (BC, 1999). Level 4 - continues to require assistance with complex text, particularly where critical or inferential reading is required. Understands most of the explicit ideas, with assistance, but still may not notice or understand implied information (BC, 1999).

2.3.2. Writing Level 1 - begins to convey meaning by writing some familiar words and patterned phrases. Has a limited variety of topics (BC, 1999). Strategy 2 - Use scaffolding for writing by slowly adding new vocabulary to familiar topics or changing the topic using familiar words and phrases to help them broaden their writing. Level 2 - The central idea is apparent, but limited vocabulary may result in topic hopping or awkward phrasing. Copies material accurately. Language is repetitive (BC, 1999). Level 3 - May develop writing with a central idea and some organization, with support. May attempt to make meaning more precise using descriptive details, examples, and explanations, with modelling (BC, 1999). Level 4 - Attempts to connect content and ideas using content-specific vocabulary, although a reader sometimes needs to infer links in the progression of thought. Expresses ideas with more elaboration. Uses a wider variety of tenses, gerunds, and infinitives more spontaneously and often correctly (BC, 1999).

2.3.3. Oral Expression Level 1 - Begins to name concrete objects. Uses single- word utterances, isolated words & phrases. May use gestures in place of words (BC, 1999). Level 2 - Begins to use content vocabulary with support. Frequently chooses incorrect words. Speaks hesitantly, rephrasing and searching for words (BC, 1999). Level 3 - May begin to understand idioms and figurative language, with supplemental instruction. Pronunciation, grammar, and/or word omission errors occasionally may make output difficult to understand (BC, 1999). Level 4 - Uses words flexibly and appropriately. Occasionally makes pronunciation, grammar, and word omission errors, but meaning is generally clear (BC, 1999). Strategy 3 - Use songs or English shows and have students repeat lines to practice how well they can replicate the pronunciation of the native speakers. You can let them use silly voices to make it more fun.