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Food Colours by Mind Map: Food Colours

1. Functions

1.1. Offsetting colour loss caused by exposure to light,extreme temperatures and moisture

1.2. Correcting natural colour variation

1.3. Enhancing naturally weak colours

1.4. Providing a colourful identity to products that would otherwise have little colour                   (e.g. gelatin)

1.5. Supplying a fun look to kid-oriented beverages and candies

2. Types

2.1. Synthetic & natural

2.1.1. Synthetic (preferred) - smaller quantity (produce uniform, intense colour), stand up to heat, light, pH and do not add off-flavors

2.1.2. Natural colours- pigments derived from animal, vegetable and mineral sources

2.1.2.1. carotenoids (yellow to red)

2.1.2.2. anthocyanins (red, purple, blue)

2.1.2.3. caramel colour (light yellow to dark brown)

2.1.2.3.1. heating food-grade carbohydrate (corn syrup)

2.1.2.3.2. pH 2 - 10

2.1.2.3.3. Advantages

2.1.2.4. turmeric (yellow)

2.1.2.5. annatto (yellow to reddish orange)

2.1.2.6. carmine/ cochineal (pink, red, magenta)

2.1.2.7. Advantages

2.1.2.7.1. oil soluble - well suited for tinting high-fat, low-moisture food (can provide transparent colour to liquid, oil-based product.)

2.1.2.7.2. nutraceutical value (carotenoids & anthocyanins - antioxidants)

2.1.2.8. Disadvantages

2.1.2.8.1. Stability

2.1.2.8.2. Available colours

2.1.2.8.3. Concentration

2.1.2.8.4. Objectionable off flavors and off odours

2.1.2.8.5. Cost

2.1.3. Combining colours

2.1.3.1. Artificial blue + cabbage purple = bright purple shades

2.1.3.2. Carmine + yellowish caramel = green

2.1.3.3. Turmeric + artificial blue = neon green

2.2. Water soluble dyes & water insoluble lakes

2.2.1. Water-soluble dyes

2.2.1.1. comes in the form of powder, granule or liquid

2.2.1.2. used in aqueous beverages, dry mixes, confections, and dairy products

2.2.2. Lakes

2.2.2.1. water-soluble FD&C (base- aluminium hydroxide) combined with insoluble material/substrate

2.2.2.2. (Colours highlighted in green below) & 1 natural colour - carmine [0.05% - 0.30%]

2.2.2.3. Stable at pH 4.0 - 8.0

2.2.2.4. companies - dispersion form= liquid food grade carrier (sugar syrup/ glycerine/ propylene glycol)

2.2.2.5. Applications

2.2.2.5.1. Fat-based system (oil dispersion) - chocolates, compound coatings, icings & cookie fillings

2.2.2.5.2. Dispersion into the gum matrix provides homogenous coloration, despite limited amounts of water that would hinder colour development of a dye -      chewing gum, coloured noodles

2.2.2.6. Advantages

2.2.2.6.1. Useful in dry mixes (snack seasoning) / cookie filling (if there is insufficient moisture to dissolve water-soluble colours)

2.2.2.6.2. Avoid colour migration (evenly dispersing colours)

2.2.2.6.3. Contributes opacity to enhance elegance of coated confections (more-even color coverage)

2.3. Primary colours approved by FDA

2.3.1. Blue No.1 = Brilliant Blue FCF

2.3.2. Blue No. 2 = Indigotine (royal blue)

2.3.3. Green No. 3 = Fast Green FCF (sea green) >Casing/surface of frankfurters and sausages

2.3.4. Red No.3 = Erythrosine (cherry red)

2.3.5. Red No. 40 = Allura Red AC (orange - red)

2.3.6. Yellow No.5 = Tartrazine (lemon yellow)

2.3.7. Yellow No.6 = Sunset yellow (orange)