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Food Colours by Mind Map: Food Colours

1. Functions

1.1. Offsetting colour loss caused by exposure to light,extreme temperatures and moisture

1.2. Correcting natural colour variation

1.3. Enhancing naturally weak colours

1.4. Providing a colourful identity to products that would otherwise have little colour                   (e.g. gelatin)

1.5. Supplying a fun look to kid-oriented beverages and candies

2. Types

2.1. Synthetic & natural

2.1.1. Synthetic (preferred) - smaller quantity (produce uniform, intense colour), stand up to heat, light, pH and do not add off-flavors

2.1.2. Natural colours- pigments derived from animal, vegetable and mineral sources carotenoids (yellow to red) anthocyanins (red, purple, blue) caramel colour (light yellow to dark brown) heating food-grade carbohydrate (corn syrup) pH 2 - 10 Advantages turmeric (yellow) annatto (yellow to reddish orange) carmine/ cochineal (pink, red, magenta) Advantages oil soluble - well suited for tinting high-fat, low-moisture food (can provide transparent colour to liquid, oil-based product.) nutraceutical value (carotenoids & anthocyanins - antioxidants) Disadvantages Stability Available colours Concentration Objectionable off flavors and off odours Cost

2.1.3. Combining colours Artificial blue + cabbage purple = bright purple shades Carmine + yellowish caramel = green Turmeric + artificial blue = neon green

2.2. Water soluble dyes & water insoluble lakes

2.2.1. Water-soluble dyes comes in the form of powder, granule or liquid used in aqueous beverages, dry mixes, confections, and dairy products

2.2.2. Lakes water-soluble FD&C (base- aluminium hydroxide) combined with insoluble material/substrate (Colours highlighted in green below) & 1 natural colour - carmine [0.05% - 0.30%] Stable at pH 4.0 - 8.0 companies - dispersion form= liquid food grade carrier (sugar syrup/ glycerine/ propylene glycol) Applications Fat-based system (oil dispersion) - chocolates, compound coatings, icings & cookie fillings Dispersion into the gum matrix provides homogenous coloration, despite limited amounts of water that would hinder colour development of a dye -      chewing gum, coloured noodles Advantages Useful in dry mixes (snack seasoning) / cookie filling (if there is insufficient moisture to dissolve water-soluble colours) Avoid colour migration (evenly dispersing colours) Contributes opacity to enhance elegance of coated confections (more-even color coverage)

2.3. Primary colours approved by FDA

2.3.1. Blue No.1 = Brilliant Blue FCF

2.3.2. Blue No. 2 = Indigotine (royal blue)

2.3.3. Green No. 3 = Fast Green FCF (sea green) >Casing/surface of frankfurters and sausages

2.3.4. Red No.3 = Erythrosine (cherry red)

2.3.5. Red No. 40 = Allura Red AC (orange - red)

2.3.6. Yellow No.5 = Tartrazine (lemon yellow)

2.3.7. Yellow No.6 = Sunset yellow (orange)