Tectonic Landscapes

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Tectonic Landscapes by Mind Map: Tectonic Landscapes

1. Hotspots

1.1. These are points in the mantle where volcanoes occur. These fixed points in the mantle that generate heat. The build up in pressure and intense heat cause magma to break through the crust. The volcano forms as magma is pushed through the ocean surface. These hotspot's create chains, E.g. Hawaii.

2. Characteristics of plate boundaries

2.1. Convergent Plates

2.2. Divergent Plates

2.3. Conservative Plates

3. Characteristics of Earthquakes

3.1. Focus

3.1.1. The point below the Earth's surface. The depth below the surface varies with different Earthquakes. The point where pressure build up is released and causes shock waves to move out.

3.2. Epicenter

3.2.1. This happens on the Earth's surface. This is the place that is effected the worst. Plus buildings and infrastructure will be damages badly as well.

4. Scales

4.1. Richter

4.1.1. Uses a seismograph to measure Earthquake's magnitude. Scale is 1-9 with 10 points between each number. The scale is objective. The measurements can be done from a different location from the Earthquake site.

4.2. Mercalli

4.2.1. This measures the intensity of the Earthquake from an eyewitnesses account.                               Has a scale of 1-12 and is subjective (also uses whole numbers)                                                 People need to be present for them to measure the Earthquake.

5. Prediction/ Prevention

5.1. Volcanoes

5.1.1. Education and Planning People near Volcanoes were taught to look for signs for a Volcanoes activity Example: Sicily, locals taught to watch for changes in the consistency of lava

5.1.2. Building design and Defense Lava flow can be slowed down with water until it stops Diversion channels can be built around the village Example: On Mount Etna, earth walls have been built to divert lava flow - keeps it away from cable cars that are drove by thousands of tourists

5.1.3. Prediction Example: Tiltmeters placed on the slopes of Mount St Helens predicted eruption Example: The gases are often monitored. Mount Pinatubo was predicted due to the change in gas Satellites can record a change in the volcanoes shape

5.2. Earthquakes

5.2.1. Education and Planning Example: In Japan, schools and businesses practice Earthquake drills (ducking under tables) Example: In the USA, the government provides information packs to prepare for Earthquakes

5.2.2. Building design and Defense Automatic stutters (protect windows) and interlocking framework help buildings to be more Earthquake proof Example: San Francisco airport has columns (1,5 m ball bearing) allowing the building to move with the Earthquake

5.2.3. Prediction Seismometers predict the likelihood of an Earthquake to occur

6. Management

6.1. Volcanoes

6.1.1. Economical Fertile soil Cheap geothermal energy produced Example: Coffee is grown in Colombia on volcanic slopes + Iceland has cheap electricity due to geothermal energy

6.1.2. Environmental Area looks nice, increasing tourism Example: Mount Etna provides jobs for locals

6.1.3. Social Perceived risk is small Near their family and friends Moving is hard as there's poverty in LICs Example: Mount St Helens in USA erupted - people didn't leave as they believed it wouldn't + Mount Edna (Sicily) erupted where many families on the slope lived + people lived in Mount Merapi in Indonesia

6.2. Earthquakes

6.2.1. Environmental The wealthy want to stay in developed Earthquake areas Example: Malibu, expensive coastal resort that has developed onto the coast of California (USA)

6.2.2. Social Perceived risk is small (LICs) Government has taken precaution (HICs) Example: In Japan, buildings are Earthquake proof meaning locals are safe

6.2.3. Economical Locals get jobs in tourist industry Earthquake areas are scenic Mining industry supplies many jobs for locals Example: Iceland provides jobs for locals in the tourist industry + Chile, copper is mined. In 2007, 2 people died in a mining accident - acceptable as they have jobs