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Languages by Mind Map: Languages

1. Origin theories of Indo-European languages

1.1. Nomadic Warrior Thesis- first brought about by Marija Gimbutas, who believed that the Kurgan people were the first Indo-European speakers. They lived between present-day Russia and Kazakhstan. They were nomadic herders and this took them westward through Europe, Eastward to Siberia, and southeastward to Iran and southasia. Between 3500 and 2500 BC the Kurgan warriors conquered much of South Asia and Europe.

1.2. Sedentary Farmer Thesis- First brought about by Colin Renfrew, who believed that the first Indo-European speakers lived 2000 years before the Kurgans in eastern Anatolia (by Turkey). He believes that they diffused from Anatolia westward to Greece and from Greece westward to Italy, France, Spain,and Portugal (Romance language branch). After these events it spread westward to Central Europe, then north where it started the Slavic branch, and later on spread to South Asia through agricultural practices, not military conquest.

2. Origin of English- The Bristish Isles had been inhabited for thousands of years but we know nothing of their early languages, until the celts arrived in 2000 BC, speaking Celtic. In 450, inland Europe tribes invaded the remote portions of Europe.

2.1. German Invasion- the invading tribes were the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons. Modern English has evolved primarily from these invading tribes. Vikings from present-day Norway landed in England. Although they were defeated, many stayed and contributed to the language.

2.2. Norman Invasion- The Normans came from present-day Normandy in France, and spoke French. They took over England and forced everyone to speak French. But due to the majority of people only being able to speak English, they changed the official language back to that, and formed a pidgin language.

3. Language Superfamilies

3.1. Sino-Caucasian

3.2. Nostratic?

3.3. Austric?

4. Largest Language Families

4.1. Sino-Tibetan

4.2. Niger-Congo

4.3. Afro-Asiatic

4.4. Indo-European

4.5. Austronesian

5. Largest Language Branches

5.1. Sinitic

5.2. Germanic

5.3. Indo-Iranian

5.4. Austronesian

5.5. Romance

6. Largest Languages

6.1. Mandarin Chinese

6.2. Spanish

6.3. English

6.4. Arabic

6.5. Hindi