Student Assessments       By: Brielle Ferraro

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Student Assessments       By: Brielle Ferraro by Mind Map: Student Assessments       By: Brielle Ferraro

1. Diagnostic-This type of assessment assesses students prior to teaching on their strengths, weaknesses, abilities, and basic knowledge. This allows teachers to alter curriculum to meet the student needs.                                  Advantages- This can start as a baseline for the students, it immediately helps select differentiation methods for the students, It provides a foundation to go off of when assessing a student.                                            Disadvantages-It could possibly cause an educator to make indirect references or assumptions about a students abilities and skills.              This assessment is designed for learning because it is used as a strategy in order to decide how to teach the students and what needs to be modified in order to do so.    Example Prek-4-Have teacher meet with each student individually to test their reading abilities in a timed session, this will help determine which reading level they are currently at.

2. Formative- This type of assessment is usually a low point value and can be given throughout a unit to make sure students are understanding along the way. The main focus of this assessment method it to keep an eye on students progress, such as monitoring during the unit. This assessment can also help students understand their strengths and weaknesses and see where they can improve.                                           Advantages- most formative assessments aren't graded, so this normally removes much of the anxiety that students face. If there are issues with the material teachers are able to address it early on rather than at the end of the unit.                                       Disadvantage- Many times this type of assessment is given during a lesson, so sometimes teachers run into the issue that they may not have time to both asess and give full lesson.                        Examples Prek-4- Have a class discussion with a follow up questions where students can work with a partner to confirm their understanding of the topic. This assessment is created as an assessment of learning because it is created to monitor and reveal students academic abilities.

3. Summative- This type of assessment is typically given at the end of a unit. These assessments are given to see how much the student has retained from the unit. They normally have a high point value. Advantages- This is a clear way of telling if a student has mastered the skills and retained the material being taught. The students weak areas are immediately identified with this assessment type. Disadvantages- Since this type of assessment is given at the end of a unit, it is hard for the students to relearn what they don't understand (usually little time. This could have a negative effect on students if they continue to score terribly with this assessment type.                           Example Prek-4- Elementary school students can create a poster of everything they have learned about a sun, moon, and stars unit. This will help to see everything they have retained. This assessment is designed for a way to assess students and reveal their level of comprehension for a given unit.

4. Performance-Based- This assessment looks mainly at the students ability to apply a skill set learned from a particular unit. Students are encouraged to create something, or practice a process or method. Once a process is taught it is important to make sure the students understand it and this is the reasoning for this type of assessment.                      Advantages-This assessment promotes active learning and can be summative or formative                     Disadvantages-Grading can sometimes be subjective, it takes careful planning in order to plan this assessment, it may be time consuming if it is based on a complex process                                                 Example Prek-4- Give a lesson on sharing, and problem solving strategies. Given students a variety of scenarios in which they need to problem solve and find a solution to their problems. Students can give a short answer response or step by step approach. This assessment is a assessment of learning because it is meant to evaluate students based on their ability to perform a certain skill set or method.

5. High Stakes- This assessment can be any test used to make a decision about teachers, districts, students and also the role of state, and local governments attempt to ensure that students are attending sufficient and appropriate schools. The use of this test is crucial to the safety, and fair education of every student. This is a very important assessment nationwide.                            Advantages-This primarily helps the teachers learn on a deeper level about the students needs. The testing information is always available to review. Disadvantages-Creativity is decreased. This can increase the pressure on the teachers, district and students for ,many different reasons which is not a positive. This assessment is specifically designed FOR learning. It helps to ensure that students are attending appropriately schools where they are given a fair education.  Example Prek-K- This example would be the PSSA testing or Keystone test. The scores help to indicate if the are being taught the necessary information. This reflects the school they attend, which can result in a school reward (funding) or taking away of things.

6. Portfolio-Is an assessment method that reviews a whole collection of a students work. This collection normally includes a self-evaluation, criteria, and the students reflection. The main purpose of this assessment style is to help students identifiy their likes, talents, and strengths. It also gives them clear evidence of their success in school.          Advantages- Helps kids identify their talents and bring up their self-esteem. Excellent way of grading students on their genuine assignments.                       Disadvantages-This may require more time to gather all assignments and make sure they are completed. Scoring may be difficult because of students unique abilities and talents. This assessment style is designed to measure the students assessment OF their learning and helps reveals their talents through what they have learned.                            Example Prek-4- Students- Have students combine their art projects, writing and projects and grade them based on their mastered skills. This is a great laid back way of grading young Elementary school students because it mainly highlights their talents and helps boosts their self esteem.

7. Authentic-This will assess the reading and writing that are worthwhile and also meaningful. It can be given by the teacher or through a group of students sharing their own voices. It usually gives a task for students to complete and is later followed by a rubric to follow up on their performance of the task given. The reasoning is to make sure children know how to apply what they were taught in real or "authentic" situations. This is very important for real life events.  Advantages- Students understand how to react and respond to real life scenarios. It also helps teachers become better educators by reflecting on what they have taught the students and see their responses.                          Disadvantages-These assessments can be hard to grade or assess depending on rubric style and format. This assessment is to understand what the students have learned, because it evaluates the students responses in a real life situation and monitors how they respond. Example Prek-4-Give students a multiple choice test where they are put in real life situations and have to select the choice that best matches the scenario and the correct answer.

8. Self Assessment-An evaluation of oneself and their performance skills that reflects a standard or objective. The reason for this assessment is to learn one selves strengths, weaknesses, talents, and abilities through a first look.      Advantages-Once the grading is congruent between the teacher and the student there is normally little confusion. This strongly encourages students responsibility in the classroom. Disadvantages-Students may judge other student or put themselves down because of a bad evaluation. I believe that this is an assessment for learning because students are able to learn a lot about themselves through self assessment and it will allow them to learn how to make changes which may be for the better. Example Prek-4-Have Elementary students complete a "Did I do it" self assessment that includes daily duties and obligations such as handing in homework, cleaning desks. After students will be able to assess the success of themselves in the classroom and have the clue if they need to make some changes.

9. Peer Assessment-This is an assessment style where students grade their peers based on a teachers benchmark. This is used to get students comfortable learning and giving advice to others. Students can also learn from other students mistakes.  Advantages- Students get to help influence each other and enhance each others learning capacities. Students can get more familiar with assessment culture. Disadvantages- Students might not get a full understanding of why they got a score because of the peers lack of explanation or reasoning. Students may not understand what they did wrong.I believe that this is an assessment for learning because it is considered a learning strategy in itself and students also learn from their mistakes through peer collaboration and involvement. Example Prek-4 Students can grade their peers on simple addition problems by giving them a green sticker for good! (go on) or a red sticker for stop (re do the problem). This is similar to a stop light structure and can help reinforce this set up.

10. Sources: University, C. M. (n.d.). Formative vs Summative Assessment-Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation - Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved November 16, 2016, from https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/basics/formative-summative.html     What Are the Advantages & Disadvantages of Formative Assessment? (n.d.). Retrieved November 16, 2016, from http://oureverydaylife.com/advantages-disadvantages-formative-assessment-28407.html                                                                                                                                                                        What Are the Advantages & Disadvantages of Formative Assessment? (n.d.). Retrieved November 16, 2016, from http://oureverydaylife.com/advantages-disadvantages-formative-assessment-28407.html                                                       Hilliard, P. P. (2015). Performance-Based Assessment: Reviewing the Basics. Retrieved November 16, 2016, from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/performance-based-assessment-reviewing-basics-patricia-hilliard