Scientific writings and presentation in English

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Scientific writings and presentation in English by Mind Map: Scientific writings and presentation in English

1. Grammar:  The Essential

2. Tenses and Concordance

2.1. Tenses are grammatical category realized by verb inflection: Present- Past- future.

2.1.1. Present: for known and established facts: primarily for introduction section conclusions and partly in the discussion.

2.1.1.1. the Methodology and Results sections

2.2. Past  is used  in the Methodology and Results sections.

2.2.1. FUTURE: For things that may happen in the future.

3. “Like everything metaphysical the harmony between thought and reality is to be found in the grammar of the language”. Ludwig Wittgenstein

4. 2. ADJECTIVATION

5. (articles and nouns)

6. 2.1. Countable vs Uncountable.

7. 2.2. Singular vs Plural.

8. 2.3. Definite / Indefinite

9. 2. ADJECTIVATION (articles and nouns)

10. 2.1. FREQUENCY OF DISTRIBUTION singular- definite-  countable- uncountable                                the book -  the music                 - indefinite -             a book       -   Ø - zero article              Ø                music Plural- definite-    countable                            the books - zero article         books                Ø

10.1. The: occurs with singular (C and UC) and plural nouns. A: occurs with singular C nouns zero article: occurs with singular UC and Plural C nouns.

10.2. Notes Adjectives precede nouns and adverbs precede adjectives Qualifying adjectives should be avoided in academic writing

11. 3. PASSIVE and ACTIVE Passive is formed by: BE + PAST PARTICIPLE. in the passive voice the subject recieve the action meanwhile in the active form the subject does the action. " The secretary typed the report" " The report was typed by the secretary".

12. 4. CONNECTORS Connectors are used to link ideas and information is essential. 4.1. Coordination: involves joining independet clauses with one of the coordinating conjuction (and, but, or, nor) 4.2. Subordination: involves turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element, for example through the used of subordinating conjuction or a relative pronoun.

13. 5. Spelling conventions and accuracy. BE and AE spelling should not be mixed. • Divide words when it is necessary • contractions should not be used. • Use hyphens to separate terms correctly • Define abbreviations the first time they appear –afterward, use the abbreviation rather than the full term.

14. Fairuoz Hussein Naranjo