UNIT 1. Grammar: The Essentials

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UNIT 1. Grammar: The Essentials by Mind Map: UNIT 1. Grammar: The Essentials

1. 1.1. Tenses and Concordance

1.1. 1.1.1. General tips on tense usage

1.1.1. PAST: Used in Methodology and Results sections

1.1.2. PRESENT: Used in Introduction and Conclusion sections

1.1.3. FUTURE: Used to describe possible future facts

1.2. 1.1.2. Concordance

1.2.1. Subject-Verb

1.2.1.1. Terms that may be sing. or plur.

1.2.1.1.1. Sing.:  - Unit - Amount  - Organization

1.2.1.1.2. Plur.: - Indicating individual members/components

2. 1.2. The Article and the Noun

2.1. Countable/Uncountable nouns: 1instance/2+ instances

2.2. Definite/Indefinite: the instance is clear/the instance is not clear

2.3. Articles and Proper Nouns

2.3.1. Before proper nouns

2.3.2. Before lakes

2.3.3. Most countries

2.3.4. rivers, mountains, seas and oceans

2.4. Adjectivation

2.4.1. Adjectives precede nouns

2.4.2. Adverbs precede adjectives

2.4.3. Avoid qualifying adjectives in scientific writings

3. 1.3. Active/Passive Voice

3.1. Forming the Passive

3.1.1. BE + PARTICIPLE

3.1.1.1. Transitive verbs

3.1.1.2. Intransitive verbs

3.2. Using the Passive: - Wnen the S. is acted upon.

3.3. Using the Active: - Whe the S. is the actor

3.4. Why Passive Voice?

3.4.1. Facts stand on their own

3.4.2. No bias

3.4.3. Feeling of logic

4. 1.4. Connectors: Coordinate/Subordinate sentences

4.1. Link ideas and information

4.1.1. Coordination: Joins terms that are equal (e.g. and, or, but, for, nor, yet)

4.1.2. Subordination: Shows inequality/independance/Limitation (e.g. if, as, when, because)

4.2. Specialised linking words

4.2.1. Reinforcement of ideas: - also, in other words, in addition, moreover...

4.2.2. Change in ideas: - but, although, nevertheless, however...

4.2.3. Concluding: - in conclusion, therefore, finally, thus...

5. 1.5. Spelling conventions and accuracy

5.1. - Stick to AmE or BrE - Use given spelling rules - Do not hyphenate non English-language phrases - Divide words only in necessary - Never use constractions - Use nonbreaking spaces and hyphens when it is appropriate - Capitalise proper nouns and key words in titles - Define abbreviations - Avoid abbreviations in titles and abstracts

5.1.1. - Proofread - Use a spellchecker - Use a Dictionary of Scientific Terms - Do not use unnecessary commas