Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate.

1.1. The two dominant traditions of teaching

2. Curriculum and Pedagogy

2.1. The Traditional View on Curriculum

2.1.1. The tradiitional view on curriculum is knowledge and the ways this knowledge are taught, assessed, and designed. The current approach on curriculum is to focus on creating curriculum around specific goals, and it assess curriculum in terms of productive student learning.

2.2. Pedagogic Practices

2.2.1. The Mimetic Tradition: the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students. The best method to do this is didactic method which relies on the lecture or presentation as the main form of communication. Which involves the relationship between the knower(the teacher) and the learner (the student).

2.2.2. The Transformative Tradition: the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way.

2.3. The 4 Types of Curriculum

2.3.1. Developmentalist Curriculum: It is based on progressive educational practices, and it focuses on the needs and interests of the students as individuals.

2.3.2. Social Meliorist Curriculum: It is based on the theory that schools should strive to solve fundamental social problems.

2.3.3. Sociology Curriculum: It supports that curriculum is to give students knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability.

2.3.4. Social Efficiency Curriculum: It is based on the idea that curriculum must directly and specifically prepare students for tasks in the real world.

2.4. Conflict Theory: Which states that schools indeed teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect, in a hidden curriculum.

2.5. Overall Curriculum includes: academic content, a program of studies, a complete sequence of courses, and specific topics taught in schools decided by grade levels. It should also include extra-class activites and interpersonal relationships. Overall it is anything that goes on within the school.

3. Educational Inequality

3.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories: suggest that working class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli.

3.1.1. Describe at least four school-centered explanations for educational inequality.

3.2. Cultural Difference Theories: First theory states that African American children do less well in school due to adapting to their oppressed position in the class structure. Second theory states that the working class and non white students are the less dominant culture of schools. Third theory states that Asian Americans obtain family values that place great emphasis on education.

3.3. Explain the race, class, and gender based on inequalities: Student Centered or Extra-School explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, community, culture, peer groups, and the individual student. School Centered or Within-School explanations of inequalities focus on the factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate, and teacher expectations.

3.4. Explanations of Unequal Educational Achievement: The Functionalist Vision of a "just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation.

3.4.1. Conflict throrists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of elimate inequality. Interactive theory suggest that we must understand how people within instituations such as families and schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

4. Politics of Education

4.1. Choose and Describe a Reform movement that had the most influence

4.1.1. Education for women and African Americans: I think this has had the most influence on on education. Mainly because over half of the teachers today are indeed women. If this reform had not taken place then women could have been still uneducated and schools in today society would not exist.

4.2. Define and Describe the Four Purposes of Education

4.2.1. 1. Political: to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order; and to teach children the basic laws of the society. 2. Intellectual: Purposes of schooling are to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics. 3. Social: To socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of the society. 4. Economic: to prepare students for their later occupational roles.

4.3. Chose and Describe Political Persepective

4.3.1. I think the perspective that I agree with most would be the Liberal Perspective. The Liberal Perspective is most concerned primarily with balancing the economic productivity of capitalism with the social and economic needs of the majority of people in the United States. I believe strongly about equality just as the Liberal Perspective also states. I believe that individual effort sometimes is insufficient. One thing I did not agree with was that social problems must address group dynamics rather than individuals.

4.4. Choose and Describe one vision of Education

4.4.1. Traditionalist. They believe the schools should pass on the best of what was and what is. As a future teacher I want to provide the best education for my students so they can progress in their educational career. I want to push my students to be and do the very best they are capable of.

4.5. Choose and Describe a Perspective for the Following

4.5.1. 1. Role of School: The meaning of the role of the school from a liberal perspective would be the school's role is providing the necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society. 2. Explanations of unequal performance: From the liberal perspective argues that individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages than the others. 3. Definition of educational problems: From the liberal perspective, the differences in quality and climate between urban and suburban schools, and between low income schools and middle class schools, is a central problem.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Major stakeholders in your district by name

5.1.1. Project specifications

5.1.2. End User requirements

5.1.3. Action points sign-off

5.2. Describe the elements of change within school processes and school cultures.

6. Sociological Perspectives

6.1. Define the theoretical perspective concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionalism.

6.1.1. Functional Theory: Functionalists view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work. In a functioning society schools socialize students into the appropriate values, and sort and select students according to their abilities. Conflict Theory: It argues that social order is not based on some collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force and manipulation. In this point of view schools are similar to social battlefields. Interactional: This level of analysis helps in understanding education in the "big picture". This basically is stating what students and teachers do on an everyday basis. Along with what is going on in the school environment on an everyday basis.

6.2. 5 impacting effects on students

6.2.1. Employment Most students that go to college after high school and gradate with a degree leads to greater chances of employment.

6.2.2. Education and Mobility There is a difference in the education route and the education amount.

6.2.3. Gender Girls usually start school cognitively and socially ahead of boys, by the end of high school, girls have lower self-esteem and lower aspirations than boys do. The gender gap has been somewhat reduced for middle and upper-middle class women in the last decade. Women and men do not share equality in the American society for sure. Most teachers are female while most administrators are male.

6.2.4. Tracking There is evidence that states that within school tracking has a critical impact on students mobility.  It is the placement of students in curricular programs based on students' abilities and inclinations.

6.2.5. Inadequate Schools The most obvious way schools reproduce inequalities in through inadequate schools. The kind of school system created is what creates a gap for students in their educational career.

7. History of U.S. Education

7.1. One historical interpretation of U.S. Education

7.1.1. The Democratic-Liberal School believe that the history of the U.S. education involves the progressive evolution, of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all. They tend to interpret U.S. educational history optimistically, the evolution of the nation's schools has been flawed, often conflictual march toward increased opportunities.

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Progress for Students

8.1.1. The greatest progress that has been made has been among minorities.

8.1.2. More students then ever recorded are attending college, career ready standards, and preschools.

8.1.3. The high school graduation rate is also higher then ever, which include more students with disabilities and English learners.

8.1.4. The Coleman Report: This report was commonly presented as evidence that school funding has little effect on student achievement. The Coleman Report indicates that student background and socioeconomic status were more important in the outcomes of a student and the school itself.

8.1.5. Basic Forms of Stratification: 1. Caste Stratification: occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria. 2. Estate Stratification: occurs agrarian in societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth. 3. Class Stratification: occurs in individual societies that define social level in terms of hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Two school-based reforms

9.1.1. Describe two societal economic community or political reforms.

10. Philosophy of Education

10.1. Explain the partiular world view of one of student-centered philosophy of education (pragmatism or existentialism. Include the following information: generic notions, key researchers, goal of education, instruction, and curriculum.

10.1.1. Existentialism is a modern philosophy, it is an individualistic philosophy, many people argue that is it. not a particular school of philosophy. Some of it's roots are traced back to the bible. Generic Notions: Existentialists believe that individuals are placed on this earth alone and must make sense out of the chaos they encounter. Key Researchers are 19th century philosopher Soren Kierkegaard(1813-1855).  The most recent philosophers who work in this school are Martin Buber (1878-1965), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1986), and Maxine Green (1889-1969). Primarily developed by  Edmund Husserl (1859-1935), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961). Goals of Education: Believes that education should focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and effectively. They also believe that education should stress individuality. Role of Teacher: Teachers should understand their own "lived worlds" as well as the lived worlds of their students in order to help their students achieve the best lived worlds that they can. Teacher must take risks, expose themselves to resistant students, and work constantly to enable their students. The role of the teacher is to help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together. Method of instruction: Where learning is intensely personal, each child has a different learning style, and it is up to the teacher to discover what works for each child. Curriculum: The type of curriculum heavily biased toward the humanities. Literature especially has meaning for them since literature is able to evoke responses in readers that might move them to new levels of awareness. Art, drama, and music also encourage personal interaction.