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Alkaloids by Mind Map: Alkaloids

1. L-Ornithine

1.1. Pyrrolidine and Tropane alkaloids

1.1.1. Biosynthesis Pyrrolidine alkaloids from N-methyl-delta1-pyrrolinium cation and acetylCoA Tropane alkaloids

1.1.2. Examples Cocaine Sources Activities Coca leaves Atropine and Hyoscyamine Chemistry Scopolamine (Hyoscine) Activities Sources

1.2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

1.2.1. Asteraceae and Boraginaceae

1.2.2. Hepatotoxic Double bond at 1,2 in ring and ester liver oxidase in mammals => alkylating agent

2. L-Lysine

2.1. Examples

2.1.1. Piperidine alkaloids Pelletierine Punica granatum antihelminth in dogs Lobeline Lobeline chinensis (พระจันทร์ครึ่งซัก) Campanulaceae bronchodilator and expectorant Piperine' Piper longum (ดีปลี) Piper niger (พริกไทย) quinolizidine alkaloids Leguminosae (Fabaceae) Toxic Indolizidine akjakiuds fused six membered ring and five member ring with N at the center Swainsonine Castanospermine

3. Phenylanine and Tyrosine

3.1. Phenethylamines

3.1.1. Protoalkaloids

3.1.2. From Tyrosine Mescaline Peyote (Lophophora fam. Cactaceae) Catecholamines Euphoria Hallucinogenic

3.1.3. From Phenylalanine Ephredine and Pseudoephredine sources Activity Pseudoephredine is an diastereomer of ephredine (-)-Cathinone sources MOAI

3.2. Isoquinoline alkaloids

3.2.1. Simple tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids Phenylethylamine + pyruvic acid or glyoxylic acid Cactaceae Chenopodiaceae Fabaceae

3.2.2. Benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids From Tyrosine Dopamin + 4-hydroxyphenyl acetaldehyde 5 Class Simple Benzylioquinoline Bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinolines Aporphinoids Protoberberines Morphinan alkaloids

3.2.3. Phenylethylisoquinoline alkaloids 7 membered ring analog of apophinoids Colchicine Autumn crocus (Liliaceae) Gloriosa superba (Lilibaceae) ดองดึง antigout polyploidy of chromosome

3.2.4. Monoterpenoid tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids dopamine + secologanin Emetine Ipecacuanha (Rubiaceae) Amoebic dysentery Emetic

3.2.5. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids Gallantamine Antialzhiemer

4. Tryptophan

4.1. Indole

4.1.1. Simple indole alkaloids Small subtituted tryptamin Serotonin Psylocybin , Psylocin Same as LSD Psylocybin is prodrug of pstlodin 1000 times less activity than LSD Narcotic Serotonin distubance เห็ดขี้ควาย เสพติดประเภท 5

4.1.2. Simple beta-carboline alkaloids Fused 3 rings => benzen indole pyridine Manich-like reaction Harmine, Harman, Harmaline MOAI Serotonin receptor agonist Halucinogen sources

4.1.3. Terpenoid indole alkaloids Strychnine High toxicity CNS active (glycine receptor) Spasm, Fatal Seizure เจริญอาหาร เบื่อหนุ ห้ามใช้เป็นยาแผนโบราณ ยกเว้นที่ dose < 60 mg sources C-Toxiferine Bis-iondole alkaloids Curare Yohimbine Yohimbe (Rubiaceae) Alpha 2 adrenergic antagonist Ellipticine Apocynaceae

4.2. quinoline