Biology Fall Semester Review - Victoria Kirby-Duran 5th period

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Biology Fall Semester Review - Victoria Kirby-Duran 5th period by Mind Map: Biology Fall Semester Review - Victoria Kirby-Duran 5th period

1. DNA & Cell Division

1.1. Like DNA, RNA polymers are make up of chains of nucleotides. These nucleotides have three parts: 1) a five carbon ribose sugar, 2) a phosphate molecule and 3) one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine or uracil.

1.1.1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living things. All known cellular life and some viruses contain DNA. The main role of DNA in the cell is the long-term storage of information.

1.2. DNA replication of one helix of DNA results in two identical helices. If the original DNA helix is called the "parental" DNA, the two resulting helices can be called "daughter" helices. Each of these two daughter helices is a nearly exact copy of the parental helix (it is not 100% the same due to mutations). DNA creates "daughters" by using the parental strands of DNA as a template or guide. Each newly synthesized strand of DNA (daughter strand) is made by the addition of a nucleotide that is complementary to the parent strand of DNA. In this way, DNA replication is semi-conservative, meaning that one parent strand is always passed on to the daughter helix of DNA.

1.2.1. The cell cycle is divided into two distinct parts: interphase and the mitotic phase or the M-phase. Mitosis produces two genetically identical cells, Mitosis is referred to in the following stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Interphase is preparation for mitosis with the stages of G1,S, and G2

1.3. Mitosis consists of four basic phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

1.3.1. Cell division has three purposes for an organism: reproduction, growth and maintenance. For single-celled organisms, this is their direct and only method of reproduction, and it serves no other purpose. For multicellular organisms, cell division is a step in reproduction and is necessary for growth and maintenance. A chromosome is made of chromitids and a gene is within a chromosome and a nucleotide is within a gene. DNA & Cell Division Video

1.4. Cancer can happen if the cell division occurs unchecked.

2. Cells & Biochemistry

2.1. LEVEL 1 - Cells Are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. May serve a specific function within the organism Examples- blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells, etc. LEVEL 2 - Tissues Made up of cells that are similar in structure and function and which work together to perform a specific activity Examples - blood, nervous, bone, etc. Humans have 4 basic tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve. LEVEL 3 - Organs Made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc. LEVEL4 - Organ Systems Groups of two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function for the organism. Examples - circulatory system, nervous system, skeletal system, etc. The Human body has 11 organ systems - circulatory, digestive, endocrine, excretory (urinary), immune(lymphatic), integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, and skeletal. LEVEL 5 - Organisms Entire living things that can carry out all basic life processes. Meaning they can take in materials, release energy from food, release wastes, grow, respond to the environment, and reproduce. Usually made up of organ systems, but an organism may be made up of only one cell such as bacteria or protist.

2.1.1. Bacteria is the smallest level of organization that can preform life functions

2.2. Movement , eating, reproduction, breathing, growing, waste (excretion), secretion, circulation are all characteristics of life.

2.2.1. A rock isn’t considered alive because it doesn’t convert energy from one type to another.

2.3. monomer: A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

2.3.1. polymer: A substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together, many materials used as plastics and resins.

2.4. The monomers combine with each other via covalent bonds to form larger molecules known as polymers. In doing so, monomers release water molecules as byproducts. This type of reaction is known as dehydration synthesis, which means "to put together while losing water.

2.4.1. the chemical reaction for breaking down a polymer into individual monomers. The process of splitting the bond between monomers is called hydrolysis. Hydrolysis means “to break with water”. Since a water molecule was lost during dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis brings the water back.

2.5. The important point is that the surface area to the volume ratio gets smaller as the cell gets larger. Thus, if the cell grows beyond a certain limit, not enough material will be able to cross the membrane fast enough to accommodate the increased cellular volume.

2.5.1. A cell with a 5:1 surface would be most efficient at absorbing nutrients because it's the smaller cell which takes less time to absorb.

2.6. The four types of biological molecules:Carbohydrates , lipids , proteins , nucleic acids

2.6.1. Cells & Biochemisrty Video:

3. RNA & Proteins Synthesis

3.1. DNA & RNA are both nucleic acid, adenine, phosphate, guanine, and cytosine. RNA is ribose sugar, single stranded, and it has uracil DNA is a deoxyribose sugar, double stranded , and it has thymine.

3.1.1. The similarities of the three RNA is they all associate with the ribosome , the differences is that each RNA has a different job like tRNA carries genetic information , mRNA associates with protein to form a ribosome , and rRNA transports amino acids to the ribosome.

3.2. In a eukaryotic cell, transcription occurs in the nucleus,that is, translation begins while the mRNA is still being synthesized.

3.2.1. Translation must occur in the nucleus where the DNA in the cell is located. However, once mRNA is produced, it leaves the nucleus and protein synthesis – translation – occurs in the cytoplasm.

3.3. The molecule that results from translation is protein -- or more precisely, translation produces short sequences of amino acids called peptides that get stitched together and become proteins. During translation, little protein factories called ribosomes read the messenger RNA sequences.

3.3.1. DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

3.4. The code defines how sequences of nucleotide triplets, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis.

3.4.1. Transcribe and translate the mRNA strand: CGA-UGG-GAU-CGU-UAG-CUA-GCA-GCU-AGC-G GCU-ACC-CUA-GCA-AUC-GAU-CGU-CGA-UCG-C Alanine- threonine- leucine- alanine- isoleucine- aspartate- arginine-arginine-serine

3.5. Gene Expression: the process by which possession of a gene leads to the appearance in the phenotype of the corresponding character.

3.5.1. Some mutations don't have any noticeable effect on the phenotype of an organism. This can happen in many situations,However not all mutations are harmful, there are very few number of mutations that actually can change the codes for a better functioning protein. In this case they will be beneficial. Here we are testing for potentially harmful mutations in human genes.

3.6. DNA is a dynamic and adaptable molecule. As such, the nucleotide sequences found within it are subject to change as the result of a phenomenon called mutation. Depending on how a particular mutation modifies an organism's genetic makeup, it can prove harmless, helpful, or even hurtful.

3.6.1. Similarities: Both processes occur in the nucleus. Both processes also involve specific complementary base pairing. Both processes involving the unwinding of the double helix DNA. Both processes involve forming of hydrogen bonds between the original DNA and the eventual product. Differences: Replication involves the forming of a new DNA molecule but the product of transcription is an mRNA molecule. Replication uses the base thymine but transcription uses the base uracil. Replication uses deoxyribose sugar but transcription uses ribose sugar. Replication involves DNA polymerase whereas transcription involves RNA polymerase. In replication, the DNA does not remain intact as both parent strands are eventually separated under semi-conservative replication whereas in transcription, the DNA eventually remains intact. Replication occurs in order for mitosis to occur, it is part of the cell division cycle; however, transcription occurs as a part of protein synthesis.

4. Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

4.1. Equation for Photosynthesis: Carbon Dioxide + Water ---(Light)-----> Sugar + Oxygen 6CO2 + 6H2O -----------(Light)-----> C6H12O6+6O2

4.1.1. Photosynthesis takes place inside plant cells in small things called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts (mostly found in the mesophyll layer) contain a green substance called chlorophyll.

4.2. The first part is called the light dependent reaction. This reaction happens when the light energy is captured and pushed into a chemical called ATP. The second part of the process happens when the ATP is used to make glucose (the Calvin Cycle).

4.2.1. The light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes. The inside of the thylakoid membrane is called the lumen, and outside the thylakoid membrane is the stroma, where the light-independent reactions take place. The Calvin Cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. It is also known as the light-independent reactions.

4.3. Equation for Cellular Respiration: C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 | YIELDS | 6CO2 +6H2O+ e- + 36 - 38ATP’s

4.3.1. Cellular respiration is the set of reactions that produces ATP.Cellular respiration uses glucose to produce the ATP our body needs to perform essential functions.

4.4. When Oxygen is not available, the cell is forced to produce energy (=ATP) through ANAEROBIC processes, that produce much less energy (about 15 times less), than AEROBIC processes. Oxygen is essential for the functioning of the electron transport chain.The electron transport chain (ETC) allows the cell to produce energy (ATP) by creating a proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane.

4.4.1. While water is broken down to form oxygen during photosynthesis, in cellular respiration oxygen is combined with hydrogen to form water. While photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide and releases oxygen, cellular respiration requires oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.

4.5. In glycolysis, glucose is oxidized to two pyruvate molecules with NAD+ as the oxidizing agent.Glycolysis is exergonic and produces 2 ATP. If oxygen is present, additional ATP can be generated when NADH delivers its electrons to the electron transport chain.

4.5.1. The ultimate source of energy for living things is the Sun. Plants and other photosynthetic organisms take the energy from sunlight to make glucose. This energy passes to other organisms through the food chain.

4.5.2. Photosyntheis & Cellular Respiration: