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Sara Reigh's Mind Map Vocab Project by Mind Map: Sara Reigh
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Sara Reigh's Mind Map Vocab Project

Levels of Organization

Biospere

Layer of soil, water, and air that sustains life, An example of a biosphere is the earth

Biome

Geographic region of earth that is inhabited by a community of distinct types of plant and associated animal species, An example of a biome is a tropical ocean

Ecosystems

Group of living organisms that interact with one another and the nonliving physical environment as one unit, An example of an ecosystem is a beach

Biotic Factors, The living parts of an ecosystem, Some examples are migration, seed dispersal, plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms, Biotic vs. Abiotic- interact w/ abiotic factors in an ecosystem. Some example are water, light, minerals, and temperature., Some other examples are competition for food, predators eat prey, microbes bring diseases, competition for homes, and competition for light.

Abiotic Factors, The nonliving parts of an ecosystem, Some examples are floods, erosion, drought, air, water, soil temperature, wind, and sunlight., Some other examples are el nino(la nina)-winds over pacific, regional climate(tropical, polar), wind patterns and ocean currents, and rain shadows-no rain on other side of mountain., Other examples are calcium(restrict distribution of land snails), sand(size of grain in soil can impact animals that burrow), and nitrogen(form of nitrogen used by plants).

Communities

Populations of living organisms that interact with one another in an ecosystem, An example of a community is fish, crabs, dolphins, and jellyfish all in one area

Population

Group of individuals of the same species found in a given area or located in the same area at a given time, An example of a population is a school of fish

Organism

Any form of life, An example of an organism is a fish

Energy Transfer

Producer

The organisms that produce their own energy from the sun, An example of a producer is grass

Primary Consumer

Eats producers(1st degree consumer), An example of a primary consumer is a rabbit

Secondary Consumer

Eats primary consumers(2nd degree consumer), An example of a secondary consumer is a fox

Tertiary Consumer

Eats secondary consumers(3rd degree consumer), An example of a tertiary consumer is a mountain lion

Consumers

Are the organisms that get their energy by eating other organisms, An example of a consumer is a lion

Trophic Levels

Trophic means energy

Each step in the transfer of energy through an ecosystem is known as a trophic level

There is a 90% energy loss between trophic levels

There is only 10% of energy transferred to the next level

Food Chains

Show the sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as one eats the other

Three rules for making a food chain, Rule #1: choose an ecosystem that you want to focus on, Rule #2: choose an organism at each level that actually eats the one before it, Rule #3: think about the direction of arrows(always point where energy is going)

An example of a food chain is a Killer Whale eats a Leopard Seal which eats a Cod which eats Krill which eats Algae which gets its energy from the Sun

Food Webs

Show us what an ecosystem really looks like

Whole buch of food chains

Show us that organisms eat a lot more than just one thing

An example of a food web is a marine food web

Biomes

Rainforest

A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of at least 100 inches

Marked by lofty broad-leaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy

Temperate Deciduous Forest

A forest that dominates in temperate areas

Trees are deciduous if they shed all their leaves in the winter season or during dryer periods

Coniferous Forest

A type of forest with mostly cone-bearing trees

World's largest biome

Desert

Arid land with usually sparse vegetation

Land having a very warm climate and recieving less than 25 centimeters of rainfall annually

Tundra

A level or rolling treeless plain that is characteristic of arctic and subarctic region

A region confined to mountainous areas of timberline

Grassland/Savannah

An ecological community in which the characteristic plants are grasses

A tropical or sub-tropical grassland containing scattered trees and drought-resistant undergrowth

Freshwater Biome

Containing fewer salts than the waters in the marine biome

Divided into two zones; running waters(rivers and streams) and standing waters(ponds and lakes)

Marine Biome

Relating to the sea

All the water on the earth's surface, covers 3/4 of the earth

Limiting Factors

conditions of the environment that limit the growth of a species

biotic and abiotic factors that prevent the continuous growth of a population

Carrying Capacity

the number of individuals of a species that an ecosystem can support

Ecological Succession

Primary Succession, occurs in places where an ecosystem has never existed, begins in a place without any soil, brand new land(newly formed islands), sides of volcanoes, extreme landslides that strip land to rock, and extreme flooding that strip land to rock

Secondary Succession, begins in an ecosystem when something has disturbed or destroyed the natural community, natural disasters that cause secondary succession are after forest fires, minor floods or landslides(that leave some soil)

Pioneer Species, is a hardy species that is one of the first to establish itself at the start of the process of succession

Climax Community, one that forms in the last stage of succession

Ecological succession is a process in which the communities of an ecosystem change over time

Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the variety of organisms in a geographic area that provides us, as humans, with essential natural resources.

Biodiversity provides us with food, fibers for clothing, and medicines.

When humans destroy the environment, there are three threats to the environment that they cause...

Habitat Destruction, this means that those organisms have to find a new place to live (deforestation)

Overexploitation, this means that some of the species can go extinct because we are hunting them faster than they can be replaced (deadliest catch-fish)

Introduction of exotic species, this means that they have to compete for food and they can die (fire ants on cargo ship)

Hot Spots

Biodiversity “hot spots” are where more than half of the Earth’s species are found and they are mostly found in the tropics.

These "hot spots" cover 2% of land area.

There are 17 regions on the Earth and they are very limited so they are sensitive to habitat degradation.

Population

Population Growth

increase in the number of people who inhabit

Black Plague

caused the largest decrease in population ever in history

Industrial Revolution

began in the mid 1700's in Great Britain

began by machinery replacing workers and other fossil fuels

caused increase in medicine, food, production, housing, and clothing

Exponential Growth

growth at a constant rate of increase per unit of time

Sustainablilty

the capacity to endure

is how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time

how society is able to meet their needs, while preserving biodiversity and natural ecosystems

Logistic Growth

growth pattern is which the population's growth rate slows

J-curve

another name for exponential growth

S-curve

another name for logistic growth

Population Growth Rate

a measure of how quickly the number of people in an area increases

Water Pollution

contamination of water

Point Source

pollution that comes from a single source

Some examples are factories and wastewater treatment plants

Earth's Total Water Supply

Oceans(saltwater)= 97.2%

Fresh Water= 2.8%, ice caps and glaciers = 82.1%, groundwater (aquifers) = 14.3%, surface water (lakes, rivers, and streams) = 2.4%, air and soil = 1.2%

Non-Point Source

doesn't come from one specific source

comes from a combination of a town's residents going about their everyday activites

Some examples are fertilizing a lawn, driving a car, pesticides, pet waste, motor oil, household hazardous wastes, and fertilizer

Aquifer

any geological formation containing water, especially one that supplies water for wells and springs

like an underground river