The Tree of Life

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The Tree of Life by Mind Map: The Tree of Life

1. Eubacteria

1.1. Prokaryotic

1.2. Unicellular

1.3. Cell walls made of Peptidoglycan

1.4. Reproduce asexually via binary fission

1.5. Reproduce sexually via conjugation

1.6. Autotrophic or Heterotrophic

2. Archaebacteria

2.1. Have cell walls, contain fatty acids, have complex RNA polymerase and have systems of metabolism.

2.2. Prokaryotic

2.3. Cause diseases

2.4. Eproduce asexually by binary fission or recombination through conjugation or fragmentation

3. Protists

3.1. Animal-like protists

3.2. Feed by ingesting food classified by how they move

3.3. Heterotrophic

4. Fungi

5. Animals

6. Prokaryotes

7. Eukaryotes

8. Plants

8.1. Multicellular

8.2. Obtain food by photosyntheis

8.3. Requires availability to light

8.4. Breathe carbon dioxide

9. Phylum Porifera

10. Protozoa

11. Algae

11.1. Plant-like protists

11.2. Autotrophe

11.3. Cellulose

12. Fungi-like

12.1. Heterotrophic

12.2. Cell walls made of celluose

13. Water moulds

13.1. Feed by secreting enzymes

13.2. Irish potato famune

14. Slime mould

14.1. Single cells join to form a moving blob

15. Green Algae

15.1. Pond scrum

15.2. In fur of the tree sloths

16. Brown Algae

16.1. Underwater forests of kelp

17. Datons

17.1. Silica in cell walls

17.2. Used for toothpaste

18. Dinoflagellates

18.1. Redtide releases poison that kill fish

19. Sarcedines

19.1. Amoeba

19.2. Some parasitic ones cause dysentry

19.3. Amoeboid movment

20. Flagellates

20.1. Whip-like tail

21. Sprozoans

21.1. Parasite causes malaria

21.2. Produce spores

22. Cilliates

22.1. Cillia

22.2. Tiny wave like hairs

23. Bryophytes

23.1. Haploid gametophyte

23.2. Does not have a vascular system

23.3. Sperm transported via water droplets

23.4. Dispersal Unit: Spre (n)

24. Pteridophytes

24.1. Have both male and female reporoductive organs

24.2. Sperm swim via water droplets

24.3. Spores germinate to form gametophyte

25. Gymnosperms

25.1. Cells undergo meiosis to form haploid sperm or egg cells

25.2. Reproduce via wind

25.3. Seeds (2n)

26. Angiosperms

26.1. Seeds protected by fruit

26.2. Reproduce via pollination

26.3. Majority of life spent spent as sporophyte

27. Moss

28. Coniferous (softwood)

29. Fruit

30. Fern

31. Zygomycota

31.1. Develop sexually and asexually

31.2. Fusion of hyphae leads directly to formation of a zygote, in which meiosis occurs just before it germinates

31.3. Hyphae lack septa, except for reproductive structures

32. Basidiomycota

32.1. Develop by sexual means

32.2. Basidiospores are borne on club-shaped structures called basidia

32.3. The terminal hyphal cell that produces spores is called a basidium

32.4. Asexual reproduction occurs occasionally

33. Ascomycota

33.1. Develop by sexual means;

33.2. Asexual reproduction is also common

33.3. Ascospores are formed inside a sac called an ascus

34. Mushrooms

35. Breads moulds

36. Yeasts

37. Imperfect Fungi

37.1. Sexual reproduction has not been observed

37.2. Most are thought to be ascomycetes that have lost the ability to reproduce sexually

38. Penicillium

39. Coccus

40. Bacillus

41. Sprial

42. Streptococcus pneumoniae

43. Bacillus odysseyi

44. Borrelia anserina

45. Representative Species: Borrelia burgdorferi

46. Methanogens

47. Halophile

48. Extreme Thermophiles

49. Psychrophiles

50. Phylum Cnidaria

51. Phylum Echinodermata

52. Phylum Annelida

53. Phylum Arthopoda

54. Phylum Platyhelminthes

55. Phylum Chordata

56. Phylum Nematoda

57. Phylum Mollusca

58. Starfish

58.1. Spiny skeleton

58.2. Internal skeleton

58.3. Water vascular system

58.4. Radial symmetry

58.5. Cleuterostome

59. Earthwroms

59.1. Body divided into segments that are separated by

59.2. Septa (internal walls)

59.3. Spetae =>bristles attached to each segment

59.4. True Coelom (true cavity)

60. Coral

60.1. Soft bodied

60.2. Stinging tentacles

60.3. Radial symmetry

60.4. Specialized tissues

60.5. 2 germ layers

61. Shellfish

61.1. Soft bodied

61.2. Internal or External shell

61.3. Free-swimming larva Trochopore

61.4. Four parts

61.5. Foot, mantle, shell, visceral mass

62. Insects

62.1. Joined appendages

62.2. Greater mobility and locomation

62.3. Tough exoskeleton => chitin

62.4. Segmented: 3 head, thorax, abdomen

63. Sponge

63.1. Contain a few specialized cells

63.2. Asymmetrical

63.3. Adults are SEssile

63.4. Tiny pores all over body (ostia)

63.5. Central opening osculum

64. Reptiles

64.1. Notochord

64.2. Clorsal, hollow, nerve cord

64.3. Post anal tail

65. Roundworms

65.1. Slender, unsegmented, tapering ends

65.2. Free living and Parasitic

65.3. 3 Germ layers

66. Flatworms

66.1. Unsegmented

66.2. Flattened body

66.3. Acoelomate

66.4. No coelom between tissues

66.5. Bilateral symmetry

66.6. Gastrovascular cavity with pharynx

67. Anthropods

68. Chrordates

69. Vertebrates

70. Mammals

71. Class Crustacea

71.1. Crabs

72. Class Pauropoda

72.1. Pauropods

73. Class Diplopoda

73.1. Millipedes

74. Class Chilopoda

74.1. Centipedes

75. Class Symphyla

75.1. Garden centipedes

76. Class Hexapoda

76.1. Insects

77. Subphylum Urochordata

78. Subphylum Cephalochordata

79. Subphylum Vertebrata

80. Class Agnatha

80.1. The endoskeleton of vertebrates is an important prerequisite for life on land.

80.2. Representative Species: Jawless fish

81. Class Chondrichthyes

81.1. The endoskeleton provides the support in the air and provides the places for muscle attachment necessary to movement. However, appendages are needed to move about.

81.2. Sharks

82. Class Osteichthyes

82.1. Certain bony fishes have lobe-fins, which can serve as primitive legs.

82.2. Representative Species: Tuna

83. Class Amphibia

83.1. The amphibians evolved from a fish with modified fins

83.2. Representative Species: Frogs

84. Class Reptilia

84.1. Reproduction involves internal fertilization, which protects the egg and sperm from drying. To be truly free of water it is necessary to have a specialized aquatic environment in which the embryo develops.

84.2. Lizards

85. Class Aves

85.1. Like the structures of their reptile ancestors, the skin, lungs, and kidneys of birds reduce water loss, and reproduction involves internal fertilization and the shelled amniotic egg.

85.2. Representative Species: Birds

86. Class Mammalia

86.1. At the time of the vast extinction of reptiles, mammals began to diversify and became the dominant forms of vertebrates on land.

86.2. Representative Species: Humans

87. Monotremes

87.1. Lay eggs

87.2. Incubate them like birds

87.3. Have mammary glands and make milk

87.4. Long periods of maternal care

87.5. 1 offspring/year

88. Marsupials

88.1. Highly altricial young

88.2. Short gestation (8-43 days)

88.3. Young born extremely small relative to adult size

88.4. Why is it superior to Monotremes: A marsupial is a mammal that has a pouch in which to carry their young. Marsupials generally give birth earlier that placental mammals. They have very strong limbs because they have to climb to the mothers nipples to feed.

89. Placental

89.1. Placenta develops during pregnancy.

89.2. The placenta sustains the fetus while it grows inside the mother’s uterus.

89.3. Placental mammals give birth to relatively large and mature infants.

89.4. Why is it surperior to Marsupials: A placental mammal is a mammal that is nourished in the mother's uterus and born developed. This is a very diverse group and consists of whales, cats, dogs, and humans, etc.

90. Orders of Mammals

91. Rodentia

91.1. Gnawing mammals, incisors continue to grow throughout their lives

91.2. Representative Species: Squirrels

92. Carnivora

92.1. Large canines, generally meat-eaters, the panda bear is an exception.

92.2. Representative Species: Bears

93. Primate

93.1. opposable thumbs, large brains, have social groups, use tools

93.2. Representative Species: Chimpanzee