Changing Populations in Canada "Canada's population is like a pizza of the world, with many diff...

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Changing Populations in Canada "Canada's population is like a pizza of the world, with many different colours and great tastes." by Mind Map: Changing Populations in Canada  "Canada's population is like a pizza of the world, with many different colours and great tastes."

1. Immigration/ Emigration

1.1. Push Factors (why people emigrate from their home countries)

1.1.1. poor political system

1.1.1.1. weak/corrupt government

1.1.2. poor human rights

1.1.3. natural/human resources are scarce

1.1.3.1. lack of basic necessities(food, clean water, shelter, etc.)

1.1.4. natural disasters

1.1.5. environmental degradation

1.1.5.1. pollution (air, water, etc.)

1.1.6. poor economy

1.1.6.1. lack of jobs/ limited job opportunities

1.1.6.1.1. "brain drain" (usually in a specific field of study/job category)

1.1.7. overpopulation

1.1.8. racism/discrimination/ inequality

1.1.8.1. religious prosecution

1.1.9. war/violence

1.2. Pull Factors (why people want to come to Canada)

1.2.1. Democratic government

1.2.1.1. good human rights

1.2.2. Multiculturalism/ cultural diversity

1.2.3. Good education

1.2.4. Lots of living space

1.2.4.1. More available housing

1.2.5. Relatively safe country

1.2.5.1. overall crime rates are low

1.2.6. Economic growth opportunities (good economy)

1.2.6.1. Investment opportunities

1.2.6.2. More job opportunities

1.2.7. food/resource security

1.2.8. relatively moderate climate

1.3. Immigration Policy

1.3.1. 6 Immigrant selection factors on which immigrants are tested and points are calculated for

1.3.1.1. Age

1.3.1.2. Education

1.3.1.3. Experience (Work)

1.3.1.4. Language skills in English and/or French

1.3.1.5. Arranged Employment in Canada/HRDC(if applicable)

1.3.1.6. Adaptablility

1.3.2. Canada uses the immigration points system for all immigrants planning to come to Canada, with the exception of refugees

1.3.2.1. Immigrants must score at least 67 points to qualify for immigration to Canada

1.3.2.2. Without the points system too many immigrants, other than refugees would get accepted into Canada freely

1.3.2.2.1. overpopulation could become a potential issue for Canada

1.3.2.2.2. immigrants could become a burden on the economy, especially if they don't contribute to it

1.4. Types/Categories of Immigrants

1.4.1. Family Class Immigrants

1.4.1.1. Canada expected to bring in 84,000 family class immigrants

1.4.1.2. third largest category of immigrants

1.4.1.2.1. sponsored to come to Canada by close family members already living there

1.4.2. Refugees

1.4.2.1. second largest category of immigrants

1.4.2.1.1. have been displaced or left homeless due to war or violence in their home country so they come to Canada to seek refuge

1.4.2.2. expected to decrease from 55,800 to 40,000

1.4.2.2.1. Canada accepted several refugees from other countries in the past, including an influx of Syrian refugees in 2016

1.4.3. Economic Immigrants

1.4.3.1. numbers expected to increase from 160,000 to 172,000 a year

1.4.3.2. largest category of immigrants

1.4.3.2.1. come to Canada to invest in Canadian businesses and contribute skills needed in Canadian jobs

1.5. Immigration History

1.5.1. In 1971, Canada became the first country to adopt the official policy of multiculturalism

1.5.1.1. The Immigration Act of 1976 opened up for immigration based on merit (being deserving of something)

1.5.2. Not all immigrants were welcomed or treated equally by the Canadian government

1.5.2.1. there were many discriminatory policies against non white, non Christian people

1.5.3. Since confederation, more than 17 million people have immigrated to Canada

1.5.3.1. Many of these immigrants came to Canada in the early 1900s, pursuing the promise of free land in Canada West

1.5.3.1.1. majority had English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, or other British roots

1.5.4. The original inhabitants of Canada were the Indigineous Peoples, way before confederation

1.5.4.1. In the 1600s, the first French settlers arrived and then the British followed

1.5.5. nkk

2. Settlement Patterns (where people choose to settle and why)

2.1. Population Distribution

2.1.1. majority of Canadians live among Southern Canada in coastal, urban areas

2.1.1.1. Ontario is the largest populous province in Canada, especially because new immigrants choose to settle there

2.1.1.1.1. Ontario has several urban areas and is among the Southern part of Canada

2.1.1.2. nearness to the equator = generally warmer climate than places farther away from the equator

2.1.1.2.1. warmer climate is pleasing for many people

2.1.1.3. capital cities in particular are more densely populated

2.1.1.3.1. closer to the US border and coastline

2.1.1.4. majority of Canadians live among Southern Canada in coastal, urban areas

3. Demography

3.1. Death Rate = 8.5 deaths per 1000 people

3.1.1. Life Expectancy = 81.9 years

3.1.1.1. women expected to live longer than men

3.1.1.1.1. women expected to live longer than men

3.1.1.2. no war makes Canada a peaceful country

3.1.1.3. good healthcare in Canada

3.2. Infant Mortality Rate = 4.6 deaths per 1000 live births

3.2.1. Canada provides basic necessities/resources(food, shelter, etc) to everyone

3.2.1.1. better overall quality of life

3.3. Net Migration Rate = 5.7 migrants per 1000 people

3.3.1. Population Growth Rate = 0.74%

3.4. Birth Rate = 10.3 births per 1000 people

3.4.1. Fertility Rate = 1.6 children (below population replacement level which is roughly 2.2 children per woman)

3.4.1.1. Natural Increase Rate = 1.8 births per 1000 people

3.4.1.1.1. there are more births than deaths in Canada

4. Population Pyramids

4.1. Shapes of Population Pyramids

4.1.1. Declining

4.1.1.1. smaller numbers/ percentages in the younger age groups

4.1.2. Increasing/ Expanding

4.1.2.1. larger numbers/ percentages in the younger age groups

4.1.3. Stable/ Stationary

4.1.3.1. when almost all age groups have relatively equal numbers or percentages

4.1.3.1.1. smallest numbers in the oldest age groups

4.2. Canada's Population Pyramid

4.2.1. Canada's population consists of mostly working adults

4.2.1.1. Canada's Population Pyramid

4.2.2. fewer old age people in Canada's population pyramid

4.3. Dependency Load

4.3.1. consists of children and older adults

4.3.1.1. depend on working population for economic support

4.3.1.1.1. children and older adults do not work so they put pressure on society for education, housing, etc.

4.3.2. Canada's dependency load will increase

4.3.2.1. majority of baby boomers are working adults now

4.3.2.1.1. When these working adults become seniors, it will put pressure on society for healthcare, retirement homes, etc.

4.3.2.1.2. In the future there will be more older adults than working adults

4.4. Workforce

4.4.1. amount of seniors increasing, workforce shrinking slowly as the working population gets older

5. Aboriginal Population

5.1. much younger than Canada's non-aboriginal population

5.1.1. much younger than Canada's non-aboriginal population

5.1.2. Birth rates and fertility rates are somewhat higher than the rest of Canada's population

5.1.2.1. Shorter life expectancy among Aboriginal population

5.1.2.1.1. population is replaced through more births (higher birth rates)

5.2. Canada's aboriginal population is growing more than the non-aboriginal population

5.2.1. Aboriginal children make up nearly half(48.1%) of children in foster care aged 14 and under

5.2.1.1. Provinces with a higher Aboriginal population overall have more kids in foster care

5.2.2. People identify more and more as Aboriginal, especially people of mixed heritage

5.2.2.1. First nations population grew by 22%, Metis population grew by 16.3%, and the Inuit population grew by 18.1%

5.2.2.2. Between 2006 and 2011, Canada's total Aboriginal population grew by 20%

5.3. Aboriginal children are more likely to be in foster care or live in a single parent household than non-aboriginal children

5.3.1. 34% of Aboriginal children live in a single parent home

5.3.1.1. 1 in 2(50%) of First Nations children are living in poverty or in low income households

5.4. The percentage of Aboriginals who could speak an Aboriginal language decreased from 21% in 2006 to 17% in 2016, despite a growing population

5.4.1. Smaller Aboriginal communities tend to have fewer people speaking the language

5.4.1.1. Aboriginal language tends to stay and be spoken within large Aboriginal groups and not forgotten as easily

5.4.1.2. loss of Aboriginal language = loss of heritage

5.4.1.2.1. assimilation into Canadian culture

5.5. majority of Aboriginal population living in Ontario

6. Impacts of Baby Boomers on Society

6.1. Born between 1946-1964 right after world war 2 took place

6.1.1. 50-70 years old today

6.2. Average age of Canada's population increasing

6.3. part of Canada's working population, as well as its aging population

6.3.1. Majority of baby boomers are working adults so they will become older adults if they aren't already

6.3.1.1. Political Impacts

6.3.1.1.1. Deficits and tough decisions for Canadian government about what healthcare/social supports for seniors is affordable

6.3.1.1.2. pensions, home care, and health care will be made top priorities in future elections in Canada

6.3.1.2. Social Impacts

6.3.1.2.1. In order for seniors to live long and healthy, Canada's healthcare system must adapt to meet the needs of a greying population

6.3.1.2.2. skills and work experience from baby boomers needed for working population to enter workforce and support the seniors

6.3.1.2.3. baby boomers will contribute to a larger dependency load when they become older adults

6.3.1.3. Economic Impacts

6.3.1.3.1. more seniors to take care of = more jobs in the healthcare field (nurses, doctors, etc.)

6.3.1.3.2. as the baby boomers retire, more job opportunities for young Canadians will become available

6.3.1.3.3. smaller amount of young taxpayers to fund rising costs of the growing number of seniors in Canada (tax burden)