My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Ch. 3 History of U.S. Education

1.1. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

1.1.1. Horace Mann: A lawyer that was an important part of free public education

1.1.2. Normal school: teacher training school that was started in Lexington, Massachuetts in 1839

1.1.3. Common School (public): free education in elementary schools

1.1.4. Urbanization and the Progressive Impetus John Dewey: A curriculum that would put more interest to the needs of the children

1.2. Historical interpretation of U. S. Education

1.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School Equal opportunity for everyone The Common School Era Education for all in the U.S

2. Ch. 4 Sociological of Perspectives

2.1. The Relationship Between School and Society

2.1.1. Functionalism Emile Durkheim believed that in education, schools working together with society by teaching students appropriate values for a more united society. Each part needs to do their part to work as a whole. A Nation at Risk (1983): In social and economic problems it was the school's responsibility to shape it (schools do not have all that power to do it)

2.1.2. Conflict Theory Karl Marx: separation of classes among the people (example: rich and poor) inequality Dominant Groups: those who have more money or power to control the rest of the society through different ways such as manipulation or force

2.1.3. Interactional Theory Basil Bernstein (1990): a reflection of each person and view the whole picture (whole society) Mircosociological view Example: The behaviors of students to students or students to teachers.

2.2. Five Effects of Schooling on Individuals

2.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes: differences between the schooling of a wealthy school will have more resources vs. a under financed school then the outcome of the students will be different Ron Edmonds: was the first to view the outcomes when there are differences in the schools Heyns (1978): did a study that showed that the more education a person gets and that person will more likely read more and be part of politics and be public. The more education than the more participation in society and more knowledge gained.

2.2.2. Employment: A graduate student will have better job benefits and greater opportunities for a job. Income: women- regardless of higher education will earn less than man with mostly the same education (pay discrimination) and (gender discrimination)

2.2.3. Higher education means more money People fully learn job skills by doing the job (hands on)

2.2.4. Education and Mobility: A person can have the same amount of years of education but depending on the school that a person goes will depend on social mobility, but the person's background plays a big role, too.

2.2.5. Teacher Behavior towards children will have an effect on their education Persell (1977)

3. Ch. 8 Equality of Opportunity

3.1. Educational Outcomes

3.1.1. Classs School can be expensive for working-class and underclass families It is related because upper class or middle expect their children to finish school vs working class and underclass expect their children to work as soon as possible and are focused more on economically. Higher education is expensive therefore, upper class and middle class will have better opportunities to obtain a degree and will have the opportunity to choose an elite school.

3.1.2. Race SAT scores are lower among minorities and this scores are linked to colleges. If they are lower than it is likely they will underachieve. Therefore, minorities usually do not receive the same educational opportunities.

3.1.3. Gender Despite the efforts for equality for gender differences, there still advantages for men in education and pay. In gender differences, in terms of educational attainment, have been reduced. Recent data from the U.S, the UK, Canada, and Australia indicate that not only have girls caught up to boys in almost all measures of academic achievement, policy makers are now discovering the "boy problem" (Arnot, David, & Weiner, 1999; Datnow & Hubbard, 2002; Riordan, 1999).

3.2. Coleman Study from 1982

3.2.1. 1st. Response The difference between public and private schools (Catholic Schooling) do make a difference Subsequent studies that have compared public and private schools have also found that private schools seem to "do it better," particularly for low-income students (Chubb & Moe, 1990; Bryk, Lee, & Holland, 1993).

3.2.2. 2nd. Response According to Coleman and Dowling, 2010; race and class do have an effect on education. " The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class." Coleman and Dowling (2010).

4. Ch. 5 Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism

4.1.1. Generic Notions Individuals must make a meaning in their own lives without the pressure of society because each one is born alone.

4.1.2. Key researchers Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855, Martin Buber (1878-1965), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1986), Maxine Greene, Edmund Husserl (1859-1935), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961)

4.1.3. Goal of Education The focus is on needs of the students (child-centered)

4.1.4. Role of the Teacher The focus on the student so they can achieve to be critical thinkers to enable them to make decisions on their own. Be "wide awake" Greene (1978)

4.1.5. Methods of Instruction Each student learns differently and should meet the individual's learning style

4.1.6. Curriculum Existentialists choose humanities, it relates more to being personal (individuality)

5. Ch. 2 Politics of Education

5.1. Four Purposes of Education

5.1.1. Intellectual: Teach basic and specific Knowledge-reading, writing, mathematics, history, science, and literature Political: Prepare students to become active citizens in political order Social: help solve social problems, social cohesion, society values, behaviors in society

5.2. Perspective

5.2.1. The Role of the School: for students receive the tools for growth in economic and social productivity, participate as citizen, equal education opportunity

5.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Performance: achievement-based on hard work and dedication, social status determines achievement

5.2.3. Definition of Educational Problems: limited chances of poor and minorities Quality between low and high socioeconomic backgrounds

6. Ch. 7 Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Curriculum Theory: Develomentalist

6.1.1. Based on the needs and interest of each student.

6.1.2. It does not focus on what the needs of society, rather each individual and meeting their needs.

6.1.3. A student-centered approach theory, it will focus of where the student is standing academically and develop a curriculum for that student and keep progressing based on the student needs.

6.1.4. The teacher serves as a facilitator to the student and not just transmit knowledge to the student.

6.2. Two Dominant Traditons of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition transmitting specific knowledge to students Didactic method: communicating through lecturing or presentation; teacher-centered approach

6.2.2. Transformative Tradition Modifying students in being more creative, intellectually, in their total growth. Teacher is not authoritarian: a more close relationship between teachers and students

7. Ch. 6 Schools As Organization

7.1. Marshall County, Alabama School Organization:

7.1.1. House of Representative: David Standridge

7.1.2. State Sentor: Clay, Scofield

7.1.3. State Superintendent: Michael Sentance

7.1.4. State Board School Representative: Cynthia S. McCarty

7.1.5. Local Superintendent: Frederic E. Ayer

7.1.6. Local School Board: Bobby Stewart-Chairman, Sandy Elkins-Vice chairman, Rory Colvin-Board member, Lee Fleming-Board member, Michael Price-Board member

7.2. Elements in School Processes and School Cultures:

7.2.1. Conflict: It is necessary to have conflict as a solution of problems to restructured schools.

7.2.2. Behaviors: communication, new behavior, collaboration, trust and leadership

7.2.3. Building: change will not happen if there is resistance because of the lack of relationships with the whole school

7.2.4. Process and Content: trust and openness between groups. Lieberman, 1991) "The process a team uses in going about its work is as important as the content of educational changes it attempts"

8. Ch. 9 Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. The Culture of poverty: People that are at significant disadvantage because of lack of education and other cultural resources. According to Oscar Lewis perspective the "culture of poverty eschews delayed gratification for immediate reward, rejects hard work and initiative as a means to success, and does not view schooling as the to social mobility." Now, in the middle class culture "values hard work and initiative, the delay of immediate gratification for future reward, and the importance of schooling as a means to future success" (Lewis, 1966).

8.2. School-Centered Explanation For Educational Inequality

8.2.1. School Financing Unequal funding, according to Kozol (1991) the affluent communities, the more money the school district will have, especially from the local property taxes. They have more income. Thus, there will be more resources for this schools. As for the poor school districts they will have less money because of the value of the community housing it is much lower. They have less income.

8.2.2. Effective School Research "The effective school literature," These characteristics include the following (Stedman, 1987): 1. A climate of high expectations for students by teachers and administrators 2. Strong and effective leadership by a principal or school head. 3. Accountability processes for students and teachers. 4. The monitoring of student learning. 5. A high degree of instructional time on task, where teachers spend a great deal of their time teaching and students spend a great deal of their time learning. 6. Flexibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems.

8.2.3. Between-School Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices Schools can make a difference in the communities regardless of the socioeconomically based on the "effective school research"

8.2.4. Gender and Schooling In the essay of Vivian Gomick (1987) "The Next Great Moment in History is Theirs" argued that differences between men and women are cultural, not biological, and that women deserve equality in the public and private spheres of life (the family and the workplace." Schools do put in the curricula the gender roles and some reinforce it. Now days, females have higher education and are becoming very competitive.

9. Ch. 10 Educational Reform

9.1. Two School Based Reforms

9.1.1. School-Business Partnerships: Business investing in schools for improvement such as the Bill and Melinda foundation for teacher effectiveness or Mark Zuckerberg that contributed with $100 million dollars. Despite with all the contributions made for improving education there is still little evidence of improvement. "School-business partnerships have attracted considerable media attention, but there is little evidence that they have significantly improved schools or that, as a means of reform" (Ravitch and Miner, 2010).

9.1.2. Privatization: Private companies have become more involved in education because it is seen as lucrative. They manage in schools or districts that are failing. An example is "The Philadelphia Public Schools, taken over by the state and Pennsylvania in 2003 due to low student achievement, hired for-profit companies, including Edison, as well as local universities, including Penn and Temple to manage its schools. Second, for-profit companies, such as Kaplan and Sylvan Learning Centers, have the majority of contracts for supplemental tutoring under NCLB." (Sadovinik, Cookson, Jr., and Semel, 2013).

9.2. Community: Providing support and educating adults in the community not just the student to "full-service" improve neighborhoods that are at high risk. The "full service schools focus on meeting students' and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a coordinated and collaborative fashion between school and community services (Dryfoos, 1994, 2005)

9.3. School Finance Reforms: Funding equal education. In 2009, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that funding based on students needs, "money follows the child." It is still a debate regarding funding. Equal funding for poorer school districts and urban schools. This is to improve schools with low-income and minority children and being equally funded.