My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2

1.1. The Politics of Education

1.1.1. Purposes of Schooling

1.1.1.1. Intellectual: To teach cognitive skills like reading, writing, and mathematics. This transmits specific knowledge. This allows students to practice higher thinking.

1.1.1.2. Political: To adhere to political order and prepare citizens of a Democratic society to participate in political order. This teaches students the basic orders of society and unification.

1.1.1.3. Social: The purpose of school is to also help the students adapt socially and learn to solve future social problems. This is a key ingredient to a stable society.

1.1.1.4. Economic: This prepares students for their future occupational roles in society. This helps select, train, and allocate individuals into the labor force.

1.1.2. The Role of the School

1.1.2.1. Conservative

1.1.2.1.1. Conservatives see the role of the school as a training tool to ensure that the most talented and hard-working students receive necessary tools to maximize their productivity in an economical and social standpoint.

1.1.2.2. Liberal

1.1.2.2.1. Liberals stress the training and socialization function of the school and believe in the views of an equal opportunity. The school should provide the necessary education to ensure all students have an equal opportunity,

1.1.2.2.2. Liberals also view the schools role in education is to promote an individuals personal and creative talents and focusing on growth with a sense of self.

1.1.2.3. Traditional

1.1.2.3.1. Traditionalists envisions that the schools should keep old traditional values of the society. Such as family unity, hard work, and initiative.

1.1.2.4. Progressive

1.1.2.4.1. Progressive visions are the schools role of being the central of solving social problems. It is essential to the development of individual potential, making the progress of society better.

1.1.2.5. Radical

1.1.2.5.1. Radicals believe that schools should eliminate inequalities of educational results and provide social mobility. They believe that under Capitalism, schools will remain limited, and not successful and they are vehicles for addressing inequality,

2. Chapter 3

2.1. History of U.S Education

2.1.1. Influential Reform Movement

2.1.1.1. Civil Rights Act 1964

2.1.1.1.1. I believe the passing of the Civil Rights Act is one of the most influential movements in educational history. This outlawed the discrimination of race, color, skin or national origin. This broke up segregated schools and colleges to allow equal opportunity for all people. This was signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson. This law guaranteed all people to an education.

2.1.1.2. Desegregation of University of Alabama

2.1.1.2.1. Governor George Wallace allowed segregation and a blockade to the University of Alabama. He was a believer of segregation. In 1963, two African-American students tried to enter the school. Governor George Wallace instructed state troopers to form a blockade to the schools entrance. However, President John F. Kennedy sent troops to the University of Alabama to force the desegregation. Two African-American students successfully enrolled into the University of Alabama.

2.1.2. Old World and New World Education

2.1.2.1. Old World

2.1.2.1.1. The first process of education began when the settlers from Europe brought their ideas into the New World. The society of the Old World was only limited to the sons of the rich and were the only ones allowed to get an education because they would soon be the ruling class. Tutors were hired for the sons to receive an education and tutors were hired only by rich families who were able to afford them back in England.

2.1.2.2. New World

2.1.2.2.1. The wealthy sons of the Old world did in fact end up ruling in the New World, but with them, brought education to the New World and made it more accessible. New Schools were built. The education in the new world taught Latin, Greek and old world Literature.

3. Chapter 5

3.1. The Philosophy of Education

3.1.1. Existentialism

3.1.1.1. Generic Notes

3.1.1.1.1. Existentialism is an individualistic philosophy, and it is argued that it does not belong to a school of philosophy at all. Existentialists believe that people were placed on Earth to make purpose and some sense out of the chaos they encounter. Individuals create their own meaning.

3.1.1.2. The Goal of Education

3.1.1.2.1. Education should focus mostly on the needs of individuals cognitively and affectively. Education should stress individuality and discuss the non-rational as well as the rational world. Education is an actively liberating stance which helps the individual in a chaotic, absurd world.

3.1.1.3. Role of the Teacher

3.1.1.3.1. Teachers should understand their own experienced as their own and as well as the students in order to help the students achieve the best "lived worlds" on their own. Teacher must take risks. Be vulnerable when teaching. They work constantly enable the students to become in touch with their own lives. The teacher is intensely personal one that has a lot of responsibility.

3.1.1.4. Methods of Instruction

3.1.1.4.1. The method of instruction for existentialism is knowing that every student has personal learning styles and it is up to the teacher to know what works for each student. The teacher and the student learn from one another in a non-traditional, non threatening way. The teacher rediscovers knowledge and the students also. Together, they have a better understanding of past, present and future possibilities. The teacher helps students understand by presenting questions, having activities, and everyone works together,

3.1.1.5. Cirriculum

3.1.1.5.1. Existentialists would choose curriculum that is more heavily based on the humanities such as literature. Literature has a meaning because it is able to evoke responses in readers that may move them to newer levels of awareness. The arts encourage personal interaction. This should be exposed to the students as early as possible and presents the accomplishments of mankind, and the horrors as well.

4. Chapter 8

4.1. Equality of Opportunity

4.1.1. Class: Families in the middle to upper classes are able to financially support the student the longer they attend school. Lower class families may not have the financial stability to pay for a students education the further they go. Children from the lower classes have a higher rate of dropping out, underachieve, and resist school curriculum. (pg. 342)

4.1.2. Race: The US is still divided by race despite the 1960s Civil Rights Movement. In high school, 89% of white students are able to fluently read therefore they are able to adequately get information quicker, and better. Only 66% of African-Americans in high school are reading fluently at an intermediate level. These different levels of reading reflect on the SAT scores they receive. The SAT scores are directly related to the chances of college admission, and scholarships given. "Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as whites..." (Exploring Education 343).

4.1.3. Gender: Education used to only be provided to younger men, not women. Women are now able to go to college and receive the same education as men. However, females are less likely to drop out of school than males and have a higher reading efficiency than males. Males typically outperform females in the Mathematics areas. However, society still discriminates females occupationally and academically. (pg. 343)

4.1.4. The Coleman Study of 1982

4.1.4.1. The Book "High School Achievement" created controversy. This showed that public school students and private school students differed in education. Private schools outperformed public school students because the curriculum is more disciplined and heavier enforced.

4.1.4.2. Private schools seemed to have done better for low-income students. This helps minority students get the fair education they need to catch up to society. This would stop the biases that favor white students in the middle class society.

5. Chapter 6

5.1. Schools as Organizations

5.1.1. State Stakeholders

5.1.1.1. Governor: Robert Bentley

5.1.1.2. State Senator: Richard Shelby

5.1.1.3. State Superintendent of Education: Michael Sentance

5.1.2. Cullman City District

5.1.2.1. Cullman City School Board

5.1.2.1.1. School Board President: Suzanne Harbin

5.1.2.1.2. Superintendent: Dr. Susan Patterson

5.1.2.1.3. Vice President: Jason Neal

5.1.2.1.4. Joey Orr

5.1.2.1.5. Lee Powell

5.1.2.1.6. Chris Branham

5.1.3. The Elements of Change

5.1.3.1. Unity: The interation of personalities are bound together in a organic relation. "The School is a social organism" (pg. 230

5.1.3.2. Political Conflict: Since schools are very political, to change them from within is a difficult task. Groups have different interests and it can create conflict. However, This allows local school board members to be resolved with negotiation.

5.1.3.3. Control: This sets place rules in order to design fairness within all operations. This is to rationalize human behavior in order to receive a specific goal.

5.1.3.4. Culture of the school: Changing the culture of the schools require patience, skill, and good will. This focuses on the management and balance of power between parents, teachers, school board and state to all arrive at a consensus; which is a hard task.

5.1.3.5. Student Centered Learning: Along with the school culture, this will help the school more learning centered that will require time, effort, intelligence and good will.

6. Chapter 7

6.1. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and The Transmission of Knowledge

6.1.1. Humanist: The purpose of education is to intellecually develop the students by presenting the best works of thought and literature. Liberal Arts (Pg 282).

6.1.2. Social Efficiency: Philosophy pragmatist developed in the early 20th century a democratic response to the developmental of mass public secondary education.

6.1.3. Developmentalist: Related to the needs and the interests of the student mass rather than a societal standpoint. Facilitates on student growth with skills and personality, A building-block type of education.

6.1.4. Social Meliorist: A social reconstruction standpoint. This teaches students to think and help solve social problems.

7. Chapter 4

7.1. Sociology of Education

7.1.1. Relationship Between School and Society

7.1.1.1. Functionalism: Functionalists view society as a machine. One part articulated with another to produce energy to make society work as a whole. Education is a critical part in creating moral unity that is necessary for social cohesion and harmony. The encouragement of social unity is important.

7.1.1.2. Conflict Theory: Social order does not work out all the time. Due to the diversity of society, there are intermingled thoughts, opinions and ways of life. This creates friction in society in which should be handled appropriately. Class stuggle is a part of the societal conflict.

7.1.1.2.1. The theory of class struggle was introduced by Karl Marx.

7.1.1.3. Interactionalism: Stresses the importance of analyzing, understanding, and process things before sorting them out. To avoid assumptions.

7.1.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

7.1.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

7.1.2.1.1. No one argues that school have no impact on a students development. However, a students background can take into account of how they learn. Students of higher class tend to be more disciplined, therefore they learn better. The more time a student spends around school, the more education they receive,

7.1.2.2. Employment

7.1.2.2.1. Students who complete high school, then go to college are more likely to have a higher employment rate, and make more annually than those who do not. White collar jobs require a higher level of education to gain employment. Disciplined students who enter the workforce are also likely to perform higher than those who did not attend school regularly.

7.1.2.3. Education and Mobility

7.1.2.3.1. Education leads to social and economic mobility. Individuals rise and fall based on their merit. In america, education is provided to all students giving everyone an equal opportunity to an education no matter their standpoint, unlike England, who used to go by the wealth of the families.

7.1.2.4. Teacher Behavior

7.1.2.4.1. Teachers have a huge impact on student learning and their behavior. They have the role of teaching and also disciplinary action on the students. Teachers are models for students and provide inspiration. The way a teacher instructs and disciplines in the classroom shape the students when they leave the classroom.

7.1.2.5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

7.1.2.5.1. School often than not, break up into social groups. Every school has social groups that the students form naturally. Students within their peers are labeled. Sometimes this leads to student alienation, and their morale in the classroom may suffer. This is also studed to lead to violence among peers at school and sometimes violence is projected toward the teacher.

7.1.2.5.2. Student Subcultures after high school

8. Chapter 10

8.1. Educational Reform

8.1.1. "No Child Left Behind"

8.1.1.1. Passed by George W. Bush in 2000.

8.1.1.2. Made annual testing for students mandatory from grades 10th-12th. Graduation rates are used as a secondary indicator for high schools.

8.1.1.3. States are required to report student test performances and break up the results by listing if the child is White, African-American, Hispanic, Asian, etc.

8.1.1.4. States must set adequate yearly progress goals for each school.

8.1.1.5. Schools that do not meet the AYP for two years are labeled as "Needs Improvement" giving federal funds to train teachers better.

8.1.1.6. Schools need "highly" qualified teachers for the core subjects.

8.1.2. "Race to the Top"

8.1.2.1. Implemented by President Barrack Obama in 2009

8.1.2.1.1. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. This aided states a grant program with $4.35 billion dollars to improve student outcomes and close achievement gaps.

8.1.2.1.2. Adopts standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and in the workplace after graduation. This will also help the growing social economy of the United States.

8.1.2.1.3. Builds data systems that measure student growth, and success. It also informs teachers how they can improve their methods of instruction.

8.1.2.1.4. Recruiting, developing, rewarding, and retaining effective teachers and principals, especially when they are needed most.

8.1.2.1.5. Turning around the lower achieving schools.

8.1.2.1.6. Involved the Federal Government more

8.1.3. Community-Based approach to school reform

8.1.3.1. Broader Bolder Approach founded by Pedro Noguera and Helen Ladd. Argue that schools limited institutions for eradicating the effects of poverty and its effects on students. They argue it is necessary to remove the barriers that stand in the way for urban schools to implement effective change. This viewpoint tends to be more liberal, and radical.

8.1.4. Vouchers

8.1.4.1. In the 1990s, states implemented school voucher programs that challenged the state courts for violating the separation of church and state, After a lawsuit, the decision was made that private school, and even home schools were able to practice religion in their schools.

9. Chapter 9

9.1. Educational Inequality

9.1.1. Cultural Deprivation

9.1.1.1. Working-class

9.1.1.1.1. Working-class parents are most likely unable to help their children with their homework, therefore deprives the students of tools to get an education at home. Working-class homes are also found to not have as many books, or anything that contribute to an education.

9.1.1.2. Upper-Class Advantages

9.1.1.2.1. While Working-class parents are most likely not show interest in the students education, upper-class households show the exact opposite. Upper-class students have the financial stability to support their education. They could be provided with a tutor, a private school, and even be more involved in extra-curricular activities.

9.1.1.2.2. Alongside the advantages of being an upper-class student is that schools who make up of mostly upper-class families most likely have the most funding, thus providing them with the better tools to get an education.

9.1.1.3. Race/Gender

9.1.2. School-based Theory

9.1.2.1. School Funding

9.1.2.1.1. Typically, a school in an upper-class town will most likely have successful students based on the amount of funding the school receives. Sometimes, the city where the school is located is able to raise taxes on things such as groceries, cigarettes, alcohol, or anything else to fund the schools. Schools in upper-class areas also receive money from private donors whereas a county school would receive less money due to many other surrounding county schools having to share the funds equally.

9.1.2.2. School Cirriculum

9.1.2.2.1. Another side advantage/disadvantage is that schools who are able to provide more funding are able to pay their teachers more. These schools will also be able to seek out the best teachers because of better pay, therefore upper-class cities will have a significant advantage over a more rural school.

9.1.2.3. Gender Roles

9.1.2.3.1. It is a common stereotype that women are most likely to be teacher than men. Also, another stereotype is that of men most likely being in an administrative role in a school. Men are more likely to be seen in the role of authority than women.

9.1.2.4. Ability Grouping

9.1.2.4.1. Students within schools are sometimes placed in classrooms strategically based on their standardized tests. However, some students may not perform their best on a test, therefore judging by least than expected results, the student is placed in a less challenging classroom instead of learning to their full potential.