My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Method of Instruction:

1.1. Each child has a learning style and it is up to the teacher to discover what works best for that student

1.2. Nontraditional, nonthreatening, "friendship" with students

1.3. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together.

2. Interactional theory

2.1. Primarily critiques the extensions of the functional and conflict theories (because theories are abstract).

2.2. Helps in the understanding of the big picture

2.3. Attempts to look into student and student, and teacher and teacher.

3. Politics of Education

3.1. 4 Purposes of Education

3.2. Politcal

3.2.1. Help teach students civics and basic laws of society

3.2.2. How to be a good member of society

3.2.3. Help diverse groups have political order in society

3.3. Social

3.3.1. How to function as a member of society

3.3.2. Help solve perceived problems in society

3.4. Economic

3.4.1. How to have gainful employment

3.4.2. Trains for occupational roles in society

3.5. Intellectual

3.5.1. Learning as much as possible

3.5.2. Learning as much as possible

3.5.3. Basic skills such as reading, writing, and math

3.6. Perspectives

3.6.1. Conservative

3.6.1.1. Must compete in the social environment to survive.

3.6.1.2. Conservative Support: Return to basics, traditional curriculum, and accountability.

3.6.1.3. Believe in reading, writing, and arithmetic

3.6.1.4. Role of school- provide tools needed to ensure hard working individuals receive what they need for success

3.6.1.5. Educational Problems- Come from decline in standards, culture literacy, values, and authority.

3.6.2. Liberal

3.6.2.1. Equality and balancing the economic productivity of capitalism with needs of the people.

3.6.2.2. Support: Quality with equality

3.6.2.3. Enhanced opportunity to the disadvantaged and culturally diverse curriculum

3.6.3. Radical

3.6.3.1. Capitalist system produces fundamental contradictions that will lead to a transformation in socialism

3.6.3.2. Support: Teacher,parent, and student having a greater voice. Finding solutions for social problems.

3.6.3.3. Multicultural, antiracist, anti-classist

3.6.4. Neo-Liberal

3.6.4.1. Conservative and Liberal perspectives

3.6.4.2. attribute school failure to teacher unions,teacher tenure, layoffs based on seniority, absence of school,teacher, and student accountability.

3.7. Traditional vs. Progressive

3.7.1. Traditional: Schools are necessary fr the transmission of traditional U.S values in society

3.7.2. Progressive: Schools are central to saving social problems,essential to development of individuals, and integral part of democratic society.

4. History of US Education

4.1. Created common school movement, believed teacher training was important,

4.1.1. Horace Mann

4.2. https://youtu.be/y4Qc3gZQZpI

4.3. First Kindergarten

4.4. Brown vs. Board of Education1954

4.4.1. Banned segregation in schools

4.4.2. Overturned Plessy vs. Fergusons rule of "seperate is equal." Seperate is not equal

4.4.3. Start of the civil rights movement

4.5. Historical Interpretation of U.S Education

4.5.1. Radical: Pessimistic due to lack of equality of opportunity

4.5.2. Conservative: Blame progressive/ Liberal movements. Believe academic goals and traditional goals have suffered.

4.5.3. Liberal: Democratic liberals assert that the history of education in the U.S involves progressive evolution, although flawed, the school systems that are committed to providing equal opportunity for all students.

4.6. First Kindergarten: 1855

5. Sociological Perspectives

5.1. Theoretical Perspecitve

5.1.1. Functionalism

5.1.1.1. Schools use the process of socialization. values,beliefs, and norms of society are internalized into children to become members of society.

5.1.1.2. Works like a machine where one part contributes to another to make society work.

5.1.2. Conflict Theory

5.1.2.1. The glue of society is economic,political,cultural, and military.

5.1.2.2. Social order is not based on collective agreement but dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooperation, and manipulation.

5.1.2.3. Emphasize struggle

5.2. 5 Effects of Schooling

5.2.1. Knowledge- gives people sense of well-being and self-esteem.

5.2.1.1. Schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation.

5.2.2. Employment- Greater chance of employment with schooling.

5.2.2.1. Students are prepared for careers and can become productive parts of society.

5.2.3. Attitude- Schooling can provide citizens with a better will to learn attitude and overall attitude towards education.

5.2.4. Mobility- Individuals rise and fall based on their merit.

5.2.4.1. Upper social mobility with more knowledge and job skills

5.2.5. Education- Becoming an educated individual. Citizens can become active members of society with intellectual values.

6. Philosophy of Education

6.1. Goals

6.1.1. Focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and affectively.

6.1.2. Stress individuality

6.1.3. Describe nonrational and rational worlds

6.2. Key Researchers: Soren Kierkegaard,Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Sartre, Maxine Green

6.3. Existentialism

6.3.1. Individualistic Philosphy

6.3.2. Believe that individuals are placed on this earth and have to make sense of the chaos that happens around them.

6.3.3. People must create themselves and create their own meaning by choices made in life

6.4. Curriculum

6.4.1. Biased toward humanities

6.4.2. Art, drama, and music encourage personal interaction.

6.4.3. Literature

6.5. Role of teacher

6.5.1. Intensely personal with great responsibility

6.5.2. Take risk, expose themselves to resistance, and work to keep student attention

7. Schools as Organizations

7.1. Education: One must look beyond the classroom itself and the interaction between teachers and students to the larger world where different interest groups compete with each other in terms of ideology, finances, and power.

7.2. Williard Waller- Educational sociologist

7.3. Asserted that schools are seperate social organizations due to:

7.4. Schools have definite population

7.5. Schools have a clearly defined political structure.

7.6. Schools are permeated with a "we" ideal rather than a "me' ideal

7.7. Schools represent a central network of social relationships

7.8. Schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school

7.9. The No Child Left Behind Act mandate that teachers must be highly qualified through meeting the 3 qualifications: Hold a college degree, full certification in field of study, and demonstrates knowledge of academic content in the field of study/certification

7.10. State Senator: Richard Shelby

7.11. House of Representatives: Ed Henry

7.12. State Superintendent: Michael Sentance

7.13. Local Superintendent: VIc WIlson

7.14. Local School Board Members: Daxton Maze, Randy Sparkman, James Joy, Amy Pace, Venita Jones.

8. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

8.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

8.1.1. needs of the student instead of the needs of society

8.1.2. emanated from John Dewey's writings

8.1.3. Flexibility in what was taught and how it was taught

8.1.4. stressed importance of relating schooling to the life experiences of each child at particular developmental stages

8.1.5. Teacher acts as facilitator of student growth

8.2. Humanist

8.3. Social efficiency

8.4. Social Meliorist

8.5. Traditional viewpoints:

8.5.1. body of knowledge that can be designed, taught, and assessed

8.5.2. curriculum is designed around goals and objectives to assess student learning

9. Equality in Opportunity

9.1. The Coleman Report

9.1.1. 1966 Coleman Report brought the debate about academic achievement and the effect of schools on student achievement

9.1.2. School funding has little effect on student achievement

9.1.3. Indicates that student background and socio economics status were more important in determining educational outcomes

9.2. Student Progress

9.2.1. Lower drop out rates

9.2.2. Lower drop out rates for minorities

9.2.3. Prepared for college and careers

9.2.4. Higher quality education in access

9.2.5. Improvements for students with disabilities

9.2.6. Graduation rate is at an all time high

9.2.7. College is seen as an investment and enrollment for minority groups is up.

9.3. Stratification

9.4. Three Types

9.4.1. Caste Stratification

9.4.1.1. social level is defined by strict criteria

9.4.2. Estate Stratification

9.4.2.1. social level is defined by hierarchy of family worth

9.4.3. Class Stratification

9.4.3.1. social level in hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals

10. Educational Inequality

10.1. School centered expectation

10.1.1. SCHOOL CLIMATE

10.1.2. SCHOOL FINANCING

10.1.3. PEDAGOGIC PRACTICES

10.1.4. EFFECTIVE SCHOOLING

10.2. Functionalist

10.2.1. believe school will produce unequal results. Individual talent and hard work is based on universal principle of evaluation

10.3. Conflict Theorist

10.3.1. Schools will reproduce instead of eliminating inequality

10.4. Interactionist theory

10.4.1. Schools should look into families and interactions amongst families to comprehend the factors explaining success or failure

10.5. Cultural Deprivation Theory- suggests working class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, thus arrive at school with a disadvantage

10.6. Cultural Difference Theory- African American students do not do as well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in classroom structure

10.6.1. working class and nonwhite students are resisting the dominant culture in school

10.6.2. Asian Americans possess family values that place great emphasis on educational achievement along with high expectations for children

11. Educational Reform

11.1. School based reforms

11.1.1. Privatization

11.1.1.1. Private education companies became increasingly involved in public education. corporations see the multi billion dollar education industry as a lucrative marker

11.1.2. School to Work Program

11.1.2.1. school/business partenership

11.1.2.2. extended what hadd been a vocational emphasis to non college bound students regading skills necessary for successful employment

11.1.2.3. stressed importance of work based learning

11.1.2.4. President Bill Clinton signed the School to Work Opportunity Act of 1994

11.1.2.4.1. provided every U.S student with relevant education skills obtained from structural training and work-based learning experiences