My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 3: History of U.S. Education

1.1. The Rise of the Common School

1.1.1. 1820-1860, started by Horace Mann, struggle for free public education, concern for stability and order, concern for social mobility, preparing for citizenship

1.2. Democratic-Liberal School

1.2.1. providing equality of opportunity for all

2. Chapter 2: Politics of Education

2.1. Political Purpose

2.1.1. teach basic laws of society, prepare for political order, and teach allegiance to political order

2.2. Intellectual Purpose

2.2.1. teach cognitive skills, transmit knowledge and encourage a higher level of thinking

2.3. Social Purpose

2.3.1. help solve social problems, socialize into various roles, behaviors and values of society

2.4. Economic Purpose

2.4.1. to prepare students for occupational roles

2.5. Conservative perspectives

2.5.1. role of school to provide the necessary educational training to individuals to maximize social and economic productivity

2.5.2. unequal performance students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work and initiative; achievement is based upon hard work and sacrifice; school is designed to give the opportunity to succeed

2.5.3. educational problems decline of authority schools are stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency decline of values also known as decline of civilization decline of standards decline of cultural literacy

3. Chapter 4: Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Functionalism

3.1.1. schools socialize students, and place according to ability

3.1.2. Education is critical in creating harmony and unity in a society.

3.1.3. Educational reforms to encourage social unity

3.1.4. Emilie Durkheim

3.2. Interactionalism

3.2.1. focuses on everyday interactions between students and students and students and teachers

3.2.2. critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict theory

3.2.3. emphasizes structure and process at the most basic level of analysis

3.2.4. Basil Bernstein

3.3. Conflict Theory

3.3.1. focuses on inequality

3.3.2. school is a social battlefield, students struggle with teachers, teachers with administrators, etc.

3.3.3. ideas and intellect created by the powerful to enhance their position, legitimizing inequality

3.3.4. Karl Marx, Max Weber, Randall Collins, Willard Waller

3.4. 5 effects of Schooling

3.4.1. Knowledge amount of knowledge obtained differs by school, higher social classes tend to receive higher levels of achievement More schooling = greater knowledge and greater participation in politics and public affairs

3.4.2. Employment more school generally means higher income level

3.4.3. Gender Discrimination girls start out ahead of boys but by the end of high school have lower-self esteem and lower aspirations

3.4.4. Mobility more education=more economic and social mobility where school is attended affects mobility. Private school= "mobility escalator"

3.4.5. Inequality social stratification social class distinctions that are reflected in income, education, family, occupation, residence, political involvement, health, consumer behavior and religious belief

4. Chapter 5: Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. American Founders: George Sanders Peirce, William James, John Dewey European philosophers: Frances Bacon, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.1.2. Notions- attainment of better society through education, skills learned both experientially and from books to create a cooperative democratic society, children are active, growing, changing and need a course of study that would reflect their stage of development

4.1.3. Goal of education- to provide students with the knowledge to improve social order by providing students with a place that ideas could be implemented, challenged, and resructured.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher- facilitator- encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and plans course of study.

4.1.5. Method- problem solving method, individually and in groups, students pose questions, field trips and projects

4.1.6. Curriculum- not fixed, changes with social order and when children's interest and needs change

5. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

5.1. Tennessee State Senators: Bob Corker and Lamar Alexander

5.1.1. Tennessee Representative District 4: Scott DesJarlais Commissioner of Education: Candice McQueen Marshall County TN, Director of Schools: Jacob Sorrells

5.2. Team Building

5.2.1. stop "resistance to change" by including all staff in decision making

5.3. Process and Content are interrelated

5.3.1. the process is just as important as the content

5.4. Conflict

5.4.1. undercover problems/conflict arise, school staff should be prepared to solve these problems

5.5. New Behavior

5.5.1. communication and trust skills, leadership and initiative, learning techniques

6. Chapter 7: Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum

6.1.1. All students learn differently

6.1.2. ability groups or curriculum tracks

6.1.3. students have different needs and aspirations

6.1.4. derived from John Dewey's Progressivism

6.1.5. school is a social reform, help students adjust to society

6.1.6. prepare students for diverse positions in society

6.1.7. school curriculum tailored to individual needs

6.2. Mimetic tradition

6.2.1. transmit specific knowledge to students didactic method- lecture or presentation best method measurable goals and objectives

6.3. Transformative tradition

6.3.1. change student in meaningful way including; creatively, intellectually, spiritually, or emotionally multidimensional theory of teaching teaching and learning inextricably linked

7. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational impacts

7.1.1. Race race still determines how much education is received drop out rate is higher for African American and hispanic students problems reading, searching for information, science and social studies minorities have lower SAT scores than white students less scholarships since most are linked to standardized testing minorities receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities

7.1.2. Gender females are less likely to drop out of school than males and have higher levels of reading proficiency females have higher proficiency in writing males have higher proficiency in mathematics males tend to do better on SAT testing more females enroll in post secondary institutions

7.1.3. Class expense of education- higher class can afford more education lower class has lower expectations school represents values of middle and upper class more books at home-better academic achievement lower class- underachieve, more likely to drop out elite colleges cater to upper middle class or higher

7.2. Coleman Study 1982

7.2.1. private schools seem to have certain organizational characteristics that are related to student outcomes but is that significant? judged against reasonable benchmarks, there is little basis for the this conclusion.

7.2.2. confirmation: school is related to socioeconomic and race background, composition of students effects student achievement

8. Chapter 9: Educational Inequality

8.1. cultural deprivation theory

8.1.1. working class and non white families lack resources (books, educational stimuli, etc.) and thus has a significant educational disadvantage.

8.2. cultural difference theory

8.2.1. working class and non white families are educationally disadvantaged because of being the oppressed minority- not because of a lack of resources at home.

8.3. school centered explanations of educational inequality

8.3.1. School Financing schools funding is based of taxes, higher class areas receive more taxes than lower class leading to more funding for higher class schools.

8.3.2. School Research How does the school affect student learning?

8.3.3. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices type of schooling responds to social class, different schools offer different types of learning styles, example is private schools provide a more college preparatory curriculum than middle class community schools.

8.3.4. Curriculum and Ability Grouping tracking leads to students being separated by test scores, teacher recommendations, and sometimes characteristics.

9. Chapter 10: Educational Reform

9.1. school of choice

9.1.1. vouchers allow students to attend school of guardians choice. Voucher can be used for magnet, public, or private schooling

9.1.2. created because magnet schools and private schools perform better than public schooling

9.2. school to work programs

9.2.1. allow vocational studies for students not planning on attending college

9.2.2. explore careers and learn required skills

9.2.3. earn valid credentials

9.3. School Finance reforms

9.3.1. more funding to poorer school districts

9.3.2. supplemental resource packages that included preschool programs given to renovate urban schools

9.4. Full service and community schools

9.4.1. schools serve as community center

9.4.2. meet students and families educational, physical, psychological and social needs

9.4.3. adult education, health clinics, recreation, after school programs, etc.