My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Politics od Education

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual - Schools provide the basic academic knowledge to students so that they may beable to function and contribute to society

1.1.2. political - schools provide students with the proper knowledge of laws to follow, both societal and governmental, so that the students may be conscious of the political/governmental changes in their home-place and what effect it may have on them

1.1.3. social - schools teach students to interact with one another and the world around them, to be conscious of others and their points of view. economic - schools prepare students to enter the workforce and manage their earning, so that they can benefit them to the maximum.

1.2. The role of the School

1.2.1. schools should provide the basic educational tools necessary for students to achieve their career goals while simultaneously implementing social skills that will benefit them.

1.3. Explanations of unequal performance

1.3.1. All students have different opportunities and some have more of an advantage due to their environment and available resources, in the end though resources are not everything, the student must have a positive mind set that they will achieve their goal

1.4. definition of educational problems

1.4.1. there is slightly too much micro-managing by those who are not in the classroom which restricts teachers and their range for teaching which in turn may even restrict the students and what is available for them to learn

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Schooling has historically been in response to the uncertainty that family, church, or community could not provide the necessary tools needed to meet the needs of a literate person in a democratic society.

2.2. Emma Hart Willard, Troy University, 1821. first college for African Americans

2.3. one of the most important reforms that has probably greatly influenced, and may even be a foundation of modern education is when Horace Mann left his successful career as a lawyer and lobbied for the state of Massachusetts to create a state board of eductation, which he finally achieved in 1837 and became the first secretary for 11 years

2.4. Progressives at the beginning of the 20th century believed that the government at all,levels should worry about the welfare of its citizens and not of corporation. That schools should be used to address social problems to promote and preserve democracy within a new social order.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Sociology - Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

3.2. Research shows that the teacher is the single most important factor in the success of the student

3.3. Does sociology help educators to create more Highly Effective Schools which include; 1. strong leadership, - A principal that is on top of things 2. a safe and orderly environment, - an environment that becomes a safe haven 3. high expectations that all can learn, - a qualified faculty to give each student an equal opportunity 4. continual review of student progress, - teachers meet to assess the progress and see what can be done to help those who struggle. and a 5. clear mission - a clear goal to which the school and teachers aim for.

3.4. theoretical perspectives

3.4.1. functionalsm - education was of critical importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony- morak values are the foundation of society

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. generic notions

4.1.1. observe the past only to find solutions for present day problems

4.2. key researchers

4.2.1. William James, Sanders Pierce, John Dewey, Frances Bacon, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.3. goal of education

4.3.1. to create a solid foundation for students to succeed

4.4. role of teacher

4.4.1. the teacher is not an all knowing force, but a guide to her students toward alifelong pathnof knowledge

4.5. method of instruction

4.5.1. children should be given the opportunity to learn both individually and in groups

4.6. curriculum

4.6.1. have a core curriculum from which to start and then proceed outward-from the known to the unknown.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. local superintendent: Shane Barnette

5.2. state senators: Richard Shelby

5.3. House of Representatives: Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt

5.4. state superintendent: Michael Sentance

5.5. representative on state school board: Jackie Zeigler, Betty Peters, Stephanie Bell, Ella B. Bell, Cynthia Sanders McCarty, Ph.D. Jeffrey Newman

5.6. local school board: Wayne Myrex, Chris Carter, Jason Speegle, Kenny Brockman, Gene Sullins

5.7. Schools are separate social organizations because; They have definitive populations, They have political structures. They represent a multitude of social groups. They are prevailed by the “we feeling”. They have their own special culture.

5.8. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching. Communities are in conflict with administration. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of disicipline

5.9. Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations and conformity. Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will. “Schools of Tomorrow…Today Project” in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching.

5.10. Changing a school; Conflict is a necessary part of change. New behaviors must be learned. Team building must extend to all parts. Process and content are interrelated.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. The Coleman Study 1966 Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. P. 367 As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success. P. 367

7.2. Class Schools represent the middle and upper class. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. P. 342

7.3. Race Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans. P. 343

7.4. Gender In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries. P. 343

7.5. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. P. 340

7.6. Social stratification – three systems Caste-a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. P. 340

7.7. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975. IDEA 1996 REI – Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming. P. 364

7.8. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement College graduates have higher salaries. P.375 The amount of education is directly related to life chances. Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact. P. 377

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

8.2. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers A ‘Calling’ for the profession Professional knowledge Personal qualities With-it-ness Instructional Effectiveness Good communicator Street smart Willing to go the extra mile Lifelong learner

9.2. School Based Reforms p. 520 School Choice Charter Schools Tuition Vouchers Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private) Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district)

9.3. Teacher Education Programs p. 528 Three Major Points; More intellectual demands in education programs Attract and retain competent teachers Reorganize educational academic and professional development Plan p. 5320

9.4. Connecting School Community and Societal Reforms p. 540 A Theory of Educational Problems and Reforms p. 541 Solutions and Proposals p. 543 – 545 Integrative Realm p. 542 - basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement. Developmental Realm – focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions. Conclusion: Do the best with what you have that is within your control.

10. Limits and Promises of Education

10.1. Educational Problems

10.1.1. The Achievment Gaps 1. Elementary Secondary Education Act Set basic foundation of Education, first attempt to set a centralized curriculum in the country 2. Tried to erase discrepancies in opportunities 3. NCLB re-established these efforts in 2001 4. Because of testing, teaching gaps have widened 5. causes are due to funding, environment, teacher quality, parents, etc. . . .

10.1.2. Crisis in Urban Education 1. Demographic trends people move in and out of school districts. cities expand and contract 2. Social Stratification people tend to associate with those that they feel most comfortable with 3. Socioeconomic/Academic Achievments students who are better off economically and socially tend to do better 4. Inequalities in School Systems some school systems suffer because of the environment they are located in 5. School Choice is an Issue Education Accountability Act 2013 - if your child attends a failing school then they have the choice to go to the school of their choice, public or private. in the last year it has cost 43 million dollars.

10.1.3. Decline in Literacy 1. Basic Skills of Fundamentals 2. Teaching to the Test 3. Pass them on due to age and no place to go 4. Schools become over-crowded 5. Raising Academic Standards (for whom?)

10.1.4. Assessment Issues 1. Teaching to the Test 2. Authentic/ True Assessments Questions to ask ourselves. 1. What have we measured? 2. How do we use our data? 3. What does the curriculum look like?

10.2. The Four Elements of Foundations of Education

10.2.1. History of Education 1. Our Purpose then; To read the Bible, to save our souls (Old Deleuter Act 1642) 2. Our Purpose Now Transmit culture prepare for a global economy prepare for the workforce, become a productive citizen, become a social citizen, pursuit of happiness pursuit of freedom, pursuit of knowledge Pursuit of life.

10.2.2. Philosophy of Education 1. how will you teach?? 2. What is in the curriculum? 3. Who are you as a teacher? 4. Who are your students? 5. What does your classroom look like? 6. How will you assess the student?

10.2.3. Politics of Education 1. How Democratic are our schools? 2. Who is involved in the decision making? 3. What determines our curriculum? follow the money - Economics determine the curriculum 4. What role does special interest groups have? Business Labor Unions Colleges World Events Religion

10.2.4. Sociology of Education 1. Are schools a reflection of our society/community? 2. How does the impact of social educations drive decision making socially? 3. Are schools perpetuating the social class/community it serves?

10.3. Foundation of your Personal Education

10.3.1. why am I a teacher?

10.3.2. what do I want to accomplish?

10.3.3. what kind of influence will I be?

10.3.4. what value do I want my students to have as a result of my influence?

11. Legal Issues in Education

11.1. Teacher Negligence of Duties • Contributory negligence is neglecting your and others’ safety. • Comparative negligence is having equal contributions to an injury. • Assumption of risk is having known that an activity could cause injury. Supervise students at all times. Do not take any thing for granted. “I was just out of the room for a second”. This statement has been the demise and costly for many educators.

11.2. Reporting Child Abuse Teachers are obligated to report suspected child abuse either mental or physical. Suggested guidelines to follow; • Report the suspected abuse to the guidance counselor, principal or DHR. • Document the action you have taken. (Document time, date, name of student, suspected abuse or symptoms and to whom you reported. • Follow-up on the situation.

11.3. Students Cheating on Tests (5th and 14th Amendment) Due Process (procedural and substantive) 1. Procedural due process is notice, hearing and explanation. 2. Substantive due process is “what is fair” not capricious or arbitrary. Suggested guidelines to follow; • Allow the student to finish the test or assignment. • Confront the student after class or take them to the principal immediately. • Do not grade that test or assignment. Arrange for another test or assignment if you consider this a viable option.* • Never take up a test or assignment and give a “0” without allowing the student to explain. “Snatch and File 13” * Recently, a school board reversed a teacher’s and principal’s decision to give students a “0” for plagiarism. Both teacher and principal resigned because of the circumstances.

11.4. Corporal Punishment (8th, 5th or 14th Amendment) Ingraham v. Wright (1977) is the Supreme Court decision that allows for corporal punishment in schools. Hinson v. Holt, Court of Civil Appeals of AL. (1998). Baker v. Owen (1975) ruled that parents could not dictate to school officials not to paddle their child. Some schools acknowledge these requests, but do not guarantee their child will not be paddled. Suggested guidelines to follow; • Always follow board policy • Use another form of punishment if available. • Have a professional witness (another teacher). • Use a reasonable paddle. The principal should determine size restrictions of a paddle. • Document all action taken. • Never paddle when angry or in doubt of a student’s guilt. School officials are usually protected if school board policy is followed; however, a person’s character and good name are “up for grabs” by any unscrupulous person.

11.5. Search and Seizure (4th Amendment) T.L.O. v. New Jersey (1985) is the Supreme Court decision that all cases are tested against. T.L.O was suspended for cigarettes and her purse was searched for other contraband. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the school. Thomas v. Roberts, 2001 (11th Cir. August 15, 2001). Principals and teachers have the power to search based on reasonable suspicion. Police must have probable cause. Suggested guidelines; • Do not search a student or locker without a witness. • Have reliable information before searching. • Do not search the entire class indiscriminately. • Do not conduct a strip search (imminent danger must be present). • When in doubt, refer to the principal.

11.6. IDEA (Special Education and Section 504) • Identify your students who are receiving services by contacting your counselor, principal or special education teacher. • Each teacher is responsible for knowing which students receive services. • Follow the IEP, 504 Plan, BIP or BBSST recommendations.

11.7. Freedom of Expression - First Amendment Tinker v. Des Moines – Students does not leave their rights at the school house door. School Law Bulletin, Quinlan Publishing Co. Boston, MA. Oakstone Publishing, Birmingham, AL.