My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 1. Purpose of Education

1.1.1. a. intellectual- teach basic cognitive skills and to promote higher order thinking skills

1.1.2. b. political- foster patriotism and prepare students to participate in political democracies and teach basic laws of society

1.1.3. c. . social- to teach social skills and ensure social cohesion

1.1.4. d. economic- prepare students for the occupational roles they will take on later in life

1.2. 2. A Conservative Perspective

1.2.1. a. role of the school- provide necessary educational training, socialize children, and is essential to economic and social stability

1.2.2. b. explanations of unequal educational performances- believe that individuals success is based on their own intelligence and work ethic.

1.2.3. c. definition of educational problems- decline of standards, watered down standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, decline of authority, schools are stifled by bureacracy

2. Philosophy of Education

2.1. Pragmatism- a philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends. Pragmatists are generally more interested in contemporary issues and in discovering solutions to problems in present day terms. They are also action oriented experientially, grounded, and will generally about how to reach their desired goal.

2.1.1. generic notions- Dewey's form of pragmatism-instrumentalism and experimentalism- was founded on the new psychology, behaviorism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. His ideas were influenced by the theory of evolution. For Dewey this meant the attainment of a better society through education.

2.1.2. key researchers- The founders of this school of thought were George Sander Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. However, there are other European philosophers from earlier periods who might also be classified as pragmatists, such as Francis Bacon, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

2.1.3. goal of education- Dewey believed the school was a place where ideas could be implemented, challenged, and restructured., while teaching students how to improve their social order. He believed it should prepare students for life. He believed that schools should balance the needs of society and the community on one hand and the needs of the individual on the other. Primary ggoal of education was growth.

2.1.4. role of the teacher- The teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions and helps plan and implement courses of study.

2.1.5. methods of instruction- Dewey proposed that children learn both individually and in groups. Formal instruction was abandoned. Learning was to take place in more non traditional ways.

2.1.6. curriculum- Curriculum was heavily biased toward the humanities. They believed in exposing students to problems as well as possibilities, and to the horrors as well as accomplishments humankind is capable of producing.

3. Schools as Organizations

3.1. Stakeholders -

3.1.1. Senators- Richard Shelby and Luther Strange, State representatives- Randall Shedd, Corey Harbison, Ed Henry State Superintendent- Michael Sentance. State Board Member for District 6- Cynthia Sanders McCarty. Cullman City Schools Superintendent- Dr. Susan Patterson. City School Board Members- Suzanne Harbin, Joey Orr, Lee Powell, Jason Neal, and Chris Branham

3.2. Elements of Change- Changing the culture of a school in order to make the school more learner centered.

3.2.1. a. Staff involvement in school restructuring must be prepared to elicit , resolve , and manage conflict. b. New behaviors must be learned. c. team building must extend to the entire school. d. process and content are interrelated.

4. History of U. S. Education

4.1. 1. Free Public Education

4.1.1. The idea for free public education was led by Horace Mann. He was a lobbyist for a state board of education. Because of his hard work and dedication the foundation was set for the first state normal school.

4.2. 2. Democratic-Liberal School

4.2.1. Believes that education involves the progressive evolution of a school system. They reject the conservative views.

5. Sociology of Education

5.1. 1. Theoretical Practices

5.1.1. functionalism- functionalist view society as a type of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work. Believe that consensus is normal and conflict represents shared values.

5.1.2. conflict theory- belief that the glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power.

5.1.3. interactionalism- primarily a critique and extension of the functional and conflict perspectives. It emphasizes structure and process.

5.2. 2. Effects of Schooling

5.2.1. a. knowledge and attitude- takes into account the students social class. Generally, the higher the social status the higher the level of achievement. Student achievement levels go up when they are required to take more academic courses and where there is consistent discipline. Research suggests that the more years of schooling leads to a greater knowledge and social participation.

5.2.2. b. teacher behavior- teachers have a tremendous impact on student learning and behavior. Teachers are models for students and , as instructional leaders, they set standards for students and influence self esteem. When teachers demand more of their students and challenge them but also praise and encourage them, students learned more and felt better about themselves.

5.2.3. c. student peer groups and alienation- it should be evident that student cultures play a an important role in shaping students' educational experiences. Schools are far more than mere collections of individuals; they develop cultures, traditions, and restraints that profoundly influence those who work and study within them.

5.2.4. d. inadequate schools- perhaps the most obvious way that schools produce inequalities is through inadequate schools. Students who attend suburban and private schools det a better educational experience than other children.

5.2.5. e. de facto segregation- schools reinforce or even create inequalities through de facto segregation. Racial integration at the school level seems to beneficial to minority students, and there is no conclusive evidence that majority students are harmed by integration.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Developmental Curriculum-

6.1.1. this curriculum is related to the needs and the interests of the students. It is student centered and was concerned relating the curriculum to the needs and interests of each child at particular developmental stages. It stressed the flexibility in what was taught and how it was taught. The teacher was not a transmitter of knowledge but rather a facilitator of student growth.

6.2. Mimetic tradition- believed to transmit knowledge to the learner through lectures and or presentations. they also believed that the teacher always transfers the knowledge to the students. Present learning goals that are very clear and east to understand. assessment is used to see what has been learned. Knowledge is not limited to bookish knowledge.

6.3. Transformative tradition- Belief that there is a transformation of one kind or a nother in the person being taught. Focus on values and interests. The teacher helps to mold the student, leaving a very distinct mark on the student.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class- Students in different social classes have different educational experiences. The cost of education is a factor. Upper class families tend to have higher expectations than those who are low income or working class. There is a direct connection between student success and parent's income.

7.1.2. Race: Despite the efforts of the Civil rights act, race still has an effect on student success. Race has a direct impact on the amount of education a student will receive. It is believe that minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white students.

7.1.3. Gender: Although women are known for being better students than men, in the past they were less likely to receive the same amount of education as them. Today females are less likely to drop out than men. Men still have advantages when competing for prestigious awards.

7.2. Coleman Study: 1982

7.2.1. James Coleman, Thomas Hoffer, and Sally Kilgore published a book called High School Achievement: Public, Catholic, and Private Schools Compared. The book was very controversial. When comparing grades, they found that there was not one subject in which public school students outscored the private school students. In other words, proving that differences among schools do actually make a difference. The findings are still up for debate.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Culture Deprivation Theory- Thee deprivation theory suggests that working class and non-white families often lack cultural resources and are at a disadvantage. Theorists suggest that the poor have a deprived culture, unlike middle class who values hard work and innitiative. This results in educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly. Another theory is that minorities have accepted oppression rather than fight it as a means of conforming and in turn are unsuccessful in their educational experiences.

8.2. Educational Inequalities

8.2.1. School Financing- Schools in rural areas that do not receive a lot of funding are struggling to prvide students with the most current methods of teaching and learning.

8.2.2. Effective School Research- Researchers closely observed schools that were excelling in all areas and tried to pinpoint some the strategies that they all had in common, in an attempt to share with all schools.

8.2.3. Between School Differences- The effective school research points to how differences in what is termed school climates affect academic performance. Looked at schools in differ economic areas.

8.2.4. Gender and schooling- Men and women view the world very differently. Despite these differences, feminists agree that schooling often limits the educational opportunities of women in a number of ways.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. Teacher Education- It was believed that if teachers and their ability to teach were actually part of the problem, then training for teachers may be a good starting point for change.

9.1.2. Teacher Quality- It has proven difficult to hire highly qualified teachers. NCLB requires that all schools have highly qualified teachers in every classroom.

9.2. Community Reform

9.3. Economic reform