My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. The intellectual purpose of education is important because it teaches a child their basic cognitive skills; reading, writing, and mathematics. Learning these skills advances the child and will help them to being able to analyze and evaluate.

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual purpose

1.2. The political purpose of education is to help children learn the basic laws of the society such as the freedom of speech. The political purpose in schooling also teaches people patriotism and prepare citizens who participate in political democracies.

1.2.1. 2. Political purpose

1.3. One of the important politics of education is the social purpose. Having social skills is important because without them and not being able to communicate properly can be a setback in life. Socializing can determine behaviors and makes a person; it's a critical aspect in life.

1.3.1. 3. Social purposes

1.4. The reason for economic purpose of schooling is to prepare students for their future job and allocate individuals into division of labor. Schools indirectly prepare students for work from society to society, but it is important to teach children the importance of responsibility.

1.4.1. 4. Economic purpose

1.5. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance. In this section it discusses the different point of view from a conservative and liberal. A conservative believes that children's academics in school are based on their own hard work and sacrifice, which I believe. A person who works hard will accomplish their goal. A liberal believes that children's success is based on socioeconomic and that everyone has an equal chance and the failure is caused by the economic status. The economic status of a child can play a role in some failures, but overall, I feel that a child who comes to class, eager to learn, will excel as long as the teacher gives the support needed which should be equally distributed between the class.

2. Philosophy of Education

2.1. The generic notions are concerned with questions about concerns impact on lives of individuals. Sartre believed that existence precedes essence and people must create themselves and their own meaning. The goal of education should focus on the needs of individuals both cognitively and affectively. Discussion should include rational and non-rational and anxiety and conflict should be addressed. The role of the teacher involves the students achieve the best lived worlds they can. The teacher must take risks and expose themselves to resistant students and work to make their students open up. The method of instruction involves learning as being personal. Each and every student learns differently and the teacher is responsible for learning the ways. The role of the teacher is to help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together which is important for a student because it leads to critical thinking and social skills. Curriculum for existentialists and phenomenologists is heavy biased toward humanities. It's important to expose students at an early age to problems as well as possibilities and horrors and accomplishments we can produce. This is important because students need to realize that life is not always easy and by giving difficult situations based on age, it is important for the child to learn and grow.

2.1.1. Existentialism & Phenomenology

3. Schools as Organizations

3.1. State Senator: Richard Shelby

3.2. House of Representatives: Mo Brooks serves my district

3.3. Sate Superintendent: Michael Sentance

3.4. There are 9 representatives for the state school board but the president is the governor: Kay Ivey

3.5. The superintendent for my local area, which is Limestone County is: Dr. Tom Sisk.

3.6. The local school board for my district, District 5, is: Bradley Young.

3.7. Elements of change within school processes and school cultures involve a broadening frame. The United States elementary and secondary school system requires viewing the organization of schools from a variety of view points. Individuals, families, and groups are able to influence education by voting, attending school district board meetings, and paying for schools through taxes.

4. History of U.S. Education

4.1. The equality of opportunity was an important reform movement because it led to a great civil rights movement. The unequal and separate education of African-Americans in the South became a focal point. It was on May 17, 1954 that Brown v. Topeka Board of Education that the Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools was unconstitutional. This was a great influential moment in education because that brought everyone together. Although this movement did not take effective place immediately in the South it took time but it was the beginning of desegregating the school systems like it should.

4.2. Conservative perspective is a perspective in which Ravitch argued in the belief that all students should be given an equal opportunity to succeed. I also agree with this and believe that all students should be given equal opportunity because it's only fair. Unlike the other perspectives of Bennett, Bloom, Finn, and Hirsch they do not view educational and social reform in the same ways. Bloom blames universities, Hirsch blames public schools unlike Ravitch. He sees that equity and excellence are crucial to understanding problems. Although, they all believe that the vision of evolution of U.S. Education has resulted in dilution of academic excellence.

4.2.1. Define actions as necessary

5. Sociology of Education

5.1. Functionalists view society as one working with another to make society work. Durkheim recognized that education in all societies is critical for uniting.

5.1.1. Functionalism

5.2. Schools are similar to social battlefields, which is where students struggle against teachers and teachers against administrators. So as a result it's building blocks of authority and power of school reflecting on aspects of education. Conflict perspective offers insights about relation between school and society. To understand impact of culture on lives of individuals one must understand the ones who participate.

5.2.1. Conflict Theory

5.3. Interactional theory are primarily critiques and extensions of functional and conflict perspectives. This theory reflects on the big picture of students and teachers of their actions and interactions. It's analyzing students disabilities and assumptions of learning and children.

5.3.1. Interactionalism

5.4. There are many different things that impact students in school. One thing that affects a student is their knowledge and attitudes. Generally the higher the social class background the higher the achievement. Education is related to the individuals' well being and self esteem so it's important also. The behind the scenes at school also affects the students. Larger schools can offer students more in way of facilities but have more restraints. Smaller schools allow more freedom but often lack resources. So depending on the school, can affect students learning abilities. Of course teachers affect students in the classroom. Teachers have many roles in the classroom besides an educator. Studies have found that teachers who demand more their students and who are praised students felt better and learned more. Most teachers automatically have low expectations for minorities, thus leading them to feel trapped. Although teachers do not make up a students success, it does impact them.

5.4.1. Knowledge & Attitudes, Inside the Schools, Teacher Behavior

5.5. Students attack not only each other but are also assaulting teachers. The adult culture of teachers and admins in in conflict with the student culture. So basically, the students can sense when a teacher doesn't get along with admin or if the student doesn't agree with their teacher or admin, violence may occur. Student cultures play an important role in shaping students' educational experience because if violence is around, the students are not properly learning. Gender can affect students because in school boys are known or allowed to act out for attention yet girls are supposed to be feminine and nice. Schools just not be held accountable for gender discrimination since books have been biased against women by ignoring their accomplishments. If girls feel inferior to boys, then why should they feel they are there to learn.

5.5.1. Student Peer Groups and Alienation, Gender

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentatlist

6.1.1. I feel that the developmentalist curriculum is a great aspect that should be in school systems. The developmentalist curriculum is one that is based on students and concerned with each one's needs. I feel that this is important because some students are succeeding into the next grade because the teacher does not want to deal with them anymore, but its unacceptable if the teacher can help them individually. I understand that this is more work for the teacher but I believe there would be higher success rates if teaching was student centered if the developmentalist curriculum is followed. Another positive in the developmentalist curriculum is the teacher stresses life experiences and this is important because it can help the student have some idea of what to expect past school.

6.2. Traditional/"mimetic"

6.2.1. This is one dominant teaching tradition with "mimetic" coming from a Greek word mimesis which is to mimic. In the Didactic method which is what the mimetic tradition follows, the communication in the classroom relies on lectures or presentations as their main form. The education process involves relationship between teacher and student and is a process of transferring information from one to the other..

6.3. Transformative

6.3.1. This is also a tradition of teaching. The transformative tradition believes that the purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way i.e.: creatively, intellectually, spiritually, or emotionally. Whereas, the traditional tradition emphasis measurable goals and objectives are the central component. The relationship between the teacher and student is an integral part of the learning process because it involves questioning and the dialectical method is its core of communication.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Students in different social class affect educational outcomes. Students who are in middle and upper-class are found to be thought highly of from teachers. Whereas, working-class and underclass children do not speak English. Social Class and level of education are highly connected. Students who come from upper class are expected by their families to finish school whereas underclass children have lower levels of expectation form their families.

7.1.1. An individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve. It is sad to say that minority students in the United States receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities than white students. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities and their rewards for education attainment are significantly less.

7.1.1.1. Gender also impact education outcomes. Women are often rated as being better students than men, but in the past they were less likely to attain the same level of education. Teachers behaviors tend to assume that females will not do as well as males in mathematics which is convincing as to why do males perform better in mathematics compared to women. Females today have higher level in reading and are less likely to drop out of school than males.

7.2. Coleman 1982: The first response was comparing public and private schools and that private schools are better, particularly for low-income students. Private schools have certain organizational characteristics that are related to student outcomes.

7.2.1. Coleman 1982: The second response was relating race and socioeconomic background. The previous 1966 argument was that race and class are predictors of academic success. But, in 1982 the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement. It;s argued that school segregation based on race and socioeconomic status and school interactions are largely responsible for gaps in achievements. The response concludes that education reform must focus on eliminating segregation that remains in the U.S. school systems.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. School-Based Reforms

8.1.1. School-business partnership that promised a city in 1995 the test scores would raise and the graduates would improve grade promotion rates. Other school-business partnerships included scholarships for poor students to attend college. School-business partnerships have attracted media attention but little evidence that proves they have improved schools or that, as a means of a reform, school-business partnerships will address fundamental problems the U.S. education faces.

8.1.1.1. The school-to-work program intended to extended school related emphasis to non-college bound students regarding skills necessary for successful employment and stress importance of work based learning. The law didn't create a program but education reform brought worker preparation and economic development to create a system. Every state with school-to-work program had to contain 3 core elements and although they were well intended, researchers found that the programs failed to fulfill their promise.

8.2. An economic reform was when the court ruled in 1990 that funding was needed to serve the children in the poorer school districts to provide thorough and efficient education in urban districts. They believed that funding needed to be equalized between urban and rural school districts. It determined extra funding was to be distributed to provide addition programs in order to eliminate disadvantages within poorer school districts.

8.2.1. A community reform is another way to attack education inequity and education and not the whole child but the community. Full service schools focus on meeting students and their families needs in more than one way. Full service schools can meet educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a collaborative and coordinated way. Schools service as community centers within neighborhoods that are open extended hours to provide services such as adult education, health clinics, recreation facilities, after school programs and more. They are designed to target and improve at-risk neighborhoods and support and prevent problems. There is not evidence that the full service schools affect student achievement but helping the community is always great.

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

9.1.1. In the cultural deprivation theory the anthropologist Oscar Lewis drew a theory. The theory was about poverty in Mexico and the cultural deprivation assert that the poor have a deprived culture. This perspective, middle-class culture values hard work and the importance of schooling means a new success.

9.1.1.1. Cultural deprivation theorist, Deutsch, concluded that educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for satisfactory academic achievement.

9.2. School-centered explanations that cause educational inequality are things within the school such as teachers, and their methods, curriculum, curriculum tracking, school climate and teacher expectations. Another term for school-centered explanation is within-school explanation. The teachers play a huge role in educational inequality because of the standards they set for children which are not completely based on positive thoughts. The curriculum within a school can also cause inequality because it may exceed some students while the content may be boring for others.