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PLANTS by Mind Map: PLANTS

1. Adaptations to Colonize Land

1.1. Vascular Systems

1.1.1. Xylem

1.1.2. Phloem

1.1.3. Roots

1.2. Lignen

1.3. Apical Meristem

2. Bryophytes

2.1. Mosses

2.1.1. ephemeral Sporophyte

2.1.1.1. Nutritionally dependent on gametophyte

2.2. Hornworts

2.2.1. Long lasting Sporophyte

2.3. Liverworts

2.3.1. Leafy Liverworts

2.3.2. Thallose Liverworts

2.4. Dominant Gametophyte

2.5. Lack Vascular Tissue

3. Ferns and Allies

3.1. Carboniferous Period

3.2. Sporophyte Dominant

3.2.1. Sporophyte Free-Living

3.2.2. Multiple Sporangia

3.3. Lycopods

3.3.1. "Club Mosses"

3.4. Horsetails

3.4.1. Silica

3.5. Pteridophyta

3.5.1. True Ferns

3.5.2. Leptosporangiate Fern

3.5.2.1. LIFE-CYCLE

3.5.2.1.1. Gametophyte

3.5.3. SORI

3.5.3.1. clusters of sporangia

3.5.3.2. Location

3.5.3.2.1. Under Leaves

3.5.3.2.2. Separate Stalk

3.6. TRUE VASCULAR TISSUE

4. ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS

4.1. Gametophyte

4.1.1. Gametangium

4.1.1.1. Produces Gametes

4.1.1.1.1. Fertilization of gametes

4.1.1.1.2. Male and Female

4.1.1.2. Specialized Tissue

4.1.1.3. Archegonium

4.1.1.3.1. Produces sperm

4.1.1.4. Antheridium

4.1.1.4.1. Produces Egg

4.1.2. Haploid

4.2. Sporophyte

4.2.1. Sporangium

4.2.1.1. Produces Spores

4.2.1.1.1. Grow into Gametophytes

4.2.1.2. Specialized Tissue

4.2.2. Diploid

5. Water Required for Fertilization

6. Gymnosperms

6.1. CONIFERS

6.1.1. Cone Bearing

6.1.2. Male cone

6.1.2.1. Microsporangiate Strobilus

6.1.2.1.1. Contains Microsporangia

6.1.2.2. Produces Pollen

6.1.3. Female Cone

6.1.3.1. "Pinecones"

6.1.3.2. Megasporangiate Strobilus

6.1.3.2.1. Contains Megasporangia

6.1.3.2.2. Ovuliferous Scale

6.1.4. Specialized Leaves

6.1.4.1. Megasporophyll

6.1.4.2. Microsporophyll

6.2. Secondary growth

7. SEEDS

7.1. Heterospory

7.1.1. Megaspore

7.1.1.1. megasporangium/nucellus

7.1.1.2. egg

7.1.1.3. Retained, never independent

7.1.2. Microspore

7.1.2.1. microsporangium

7.2. Ovule becomes seed

7.2.1. Integument

7.2.2. Micropyle

7.2.3. Funiculus

7.2.4. Chalaza

8. Angiosperms

8.1. Pollinators

8.1.1. Bees

8.1.2. Bats

8.1.3. Moths

8.2. Flowers

8.2.1. Carpel

8.2.1.1. Stigma

8.2.1.2. Style

8.2.1.3. Ovary

8.2.1.3.1. Becomes Fruit

8.2.2. Geometry

8.2.2.1. Raceme

8.2.2.2. Spike

8.2.2.3. Catkin

8.2.2.4. Cyme

8.2.2.5. Umbel

8.2.3. Stamen

8.2.3.1. Filament

8.2.3.2. Anther

8.3. Vasculature

8.3.1. Xylem

8.3.1.1. Dead

8.3.1.2. Water

8.3.1.2.1. Adhesion

8.3.1.2.2. Cohesion

8.3.1.2.3. Surface Tension

8.3.2. Phloem

8.3.2.1. Assimilates

8.3.2.2. Osmotic Pressure

8.3.2.3. Living