My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. The Limits and Promises of Education

1.1. Educational Problems

1.1.1. The Achievement Gap

1.1.2. Crisis in UrbanEducation

1.1.3. Decline in Literacy

1.1.4. Assessment Issues

1.2. The Achievement Gap

1.2.1. Elementary Secondary Education Act 1965

1.2.2. Tried to erase discrepancies in opportunities.

1.2.3. NCLB re-established these efforts in 2001

1.2.4. Because of testing, teaching gaps have widned

1.2.5. Causes are due to funding, environment, teacher quality, parents, etc.

1.3. Crisis in Urban Education

1.3.1. Demographic Trends

1.3.2. Social Stratification.

1.3.3. Socioeconomic / Academic Achievement

1.3.4. Inequality in School Systems

1.3.5. School Choice is an Issue

1.4. Decline of Literacy

1.4.1. Basic Skills of Fundamentals.

1.4.2. Teaching to the Test.

1.4.3. Pass them on due to age and no place to go.

1.4.4. Schools become over-crowded,

1.5. Assessment Issues

1.5.1. Teaching to the Test.

1.5.2. Authentic/True Assessment

1.5.3. Questions To Ask Ourselves.

1.5.3.1. 1.What have we measured?

1.5.3.2. 2.How do we use our Data?

1.5.3.3. 3.What does the curriculum look like?

1.6. Foundations of Personal Education

1.6.1. Questions to ask yourself.

1.6.1.1. Why am I a teacher?

1.6.1.2. What do I want to accomplish in my lifetime?

1.6.1.3. What kind of influence will I be?

1.7. The Four Elements of Foundations of Education

1.7.1. Philosophy of Education

1.7.1.1. Questions to ask yourself.

1.7.1.1.1. 1. How will you teach?

1.7.1.1.2. 2. What is in the curriculum?

1.7.1.1.3. 3. Who are you as a Teacher?

1.7.1.1.4. 4.Who are your students?

1.7.1.1.5. 5. What does your classroom look like?

1.7.1.1.6. 6. How will you assess students?

1.7.2. Politics of Education

1.7.2.1. Politics of Education

1.7.2.1.1. 1. How democratic are our schools?

1.7.2.1.2. 2. Who is involved in the decision making?

1.7.2.1.3. 3. What determines our curriculum?

1.7.2.1.4. 4. What role does special interests groups have?

1.7.3. Sociology of Education

1.7.3.1. Sociology of Education

1.7.3.1.1. 1. Are schools a reflection of our society/community?

1.7.3.1.2. 2. How does the impact of social expectations drive decision making socially?

1.7.3.1.3. 3. Are schools perpetuating the social class/ community it serves.

1.7.4. History of Education

1.7.4.1. History of Education

1.7.4.1.1. Our Purpose then was to read the bible to save our souls. (Old Deleuter Act 1642)

1.7.4.1.2. Our Purpose Now.

2. Chapter 4. The Sociology Of Education.

2.1. Sociology is understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

2.2. Persell's Model for analyzing School and Societies Relationship.

2.2.1. Societal.

2.2.2. Institutional.

2.2.3. Interpersonal.

2.2.4. Intrapsychic.

2.3. Relationship between schools and society.

2.3.1. Culture.

2.3.2. Students are taught values and beliefs of the society to think and act like members of society.

2.3.3. Schools select students for educational mobility/

2.3.4. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which result in how they are successful.

2.4. Three Theoretical Perspectives.

2.4.1. Functional- poses that society is best when a consensus rules.

2.4.2. Conflict. - Schools are oppressive and students are rebellious,

2.4.3. Interactional. - Theorist suggest that schools are middle class, lower social classes are at a disadvantage, and speech patterns are a reflection of social class backgrounds.

2.5. What is the goal of Education?

2.5.1. Perhaps training people for employment of for thinking?

2.6. Effects of Schooling on Individuals.

2.6.1. Knowledge of Attitude. -The higher social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement.

2.6.2. Employment. - More education results in better jobs and opportunities. Do schools determine who gets the good jobs? Schools don't prepare workers for job performance.

2.6.3. Education and mobility. - Education is the great equalizer.

2.7. 5 hate you wear

2.7.1. Nurse

2.7.2. Accountant

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Teacher Centered.

3.2. Essentialism.

4. Schools as Orginizations

5. Chapter 7. Pedagogy.

5.1. What is taught and how do we teach it.

5.1.1. Social Influence

5.1.2. Political Influence

5.1.3. Societies' Influence

5.1.4. Cultural Influence

5.1.5. Special Interests

5.2. Should the wealthy curriculum??

5.2.1. Private schools that allow the parents to choose the curriculum.

5.3. Formal Curriculum

5.3.1. Subjects include

5.3.1.1. Math

5.3.1.2. English

5.3.1.3. Science

5.3.1.4. History

5.4. Informal Curriculum

5.4.1. Taught but not obvious to sight.

5.5. Null Curriculum

5.5.1. What is not taught but is learned.

5.5.1.1. Values of the community.

5.6. Pedagogic Influences

5.6.1. Mimetic and Transformative Approaches to teaching.

5.6.2. Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all.

5.6.3. Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum.

5.7. Highly effective schools

5.7.1. Common Vision

5.7.2. Student Progress is constantly monitored.

5.7.3. Strong Leadership

5.7.4. Safe environment

5.7.5. High expectations.

6. Equality of Opportunity

7. Educational Inequality

8. Educational Reform

9. Chapter 2. Politics of Education.

10. Chapter 3. The History of Education.

10.1. Schooling has historically been in response to the uncertainty that family, church, or community could not provide the necessary tools needed to meet the needs of a literate person in a democratic society. (Purpose of Education)

10.2. Purpose Of Education.

10.2.1. Massachusetts School Law of 1647

10.2.2. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647

10.2.3. Benjamin Franklin Supported education to support trades as a common man.

10.2.4. Jefferson supported public education.

10.3. Plessy V.S. Ferguson

10.3.1. Had to be a section for blacks and whites, separate but equal.

10.4. Brown V.S. Topeka Board of Education

10.4.1. Fought against separate but equal.

10.5. Civil Rights Act of 1963

10.5.1. Secondary Elementary education act.

10.6. Not the responsibility of the federal government to educate the people, it is the states responsibility.

10.6.1. President Regan.

10.7. All students should be on a level playing field.

10.7.1. President Clinton.

10.8. NCLB no child left behind, everyone should be up and raise the standards for the teachers.

10.8.1. President Bush.

10.9. RTT, You do not have to follow NCLB standards if you meet other standards.

10.9.1. President Obama.

11. Chapter. 6

11.1. The Structure of U.S. Schools.

11.1.1. Governance.

11.1.1.1. Those powers not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states.

11.1.1.2. Each state is responsible for education.

11.1.1.3. The U,S. Department of Education was created in 1970.

11.1.1.4. The U.S. Department of Education has very little power.

11.1.2. Structure of Schools.

11.1.2.1. 1980's slightly under 16,000 students.

11.1.2.2. Average elementary school has 450 students. High Schools have 856.

11.1.2.3. Public Schools .

11.1.2.3.1. 53.5 % are White.

11.1.2.3.2. 10 states have no minority.

11.1.2.4. Private Schools.

11.1.2.4.1. in 1930's there were less than 10,000 private schools.

11.1.2.4.2. in 2009 there were 21,780 private schools.

11.1.2.4.3. Private schools were founded to separate race.

11.1.2.4.4. Most private schools are located on the east and west coast.

11.1.2.4.5. Connecticut has the most private schools and Wyoming has the least.

11.1.3. International Comparison.

11.1.3.1. Great Britain.

11.1.3.1.1. 19th century only the rich got an education.

11.1.3.1.2. National education system opposed by the church of England and the Roman Catholic Church.

11.1.3.1.3. 1944 Education was created and free public school.

11.1.3.2. France.

11.1.3.2.1. Elitists educational system.

11.1.3.2.2. Only the very elite have the opportunity to move up educationally.

11.1.3.2.3. Government controls everything down to the classroom.

11.1.3.2.4. Very competitive school system.

11.1.3.3. Former soviet Union.

11.1.3.3.1. Centralized systems where all students become productive citizens.

11.1.3.3.2. Downfall of soviet union was result of inequality was created.

11.1.3.4. Japan.

11.1.3.4.1. Education is highly competitive.

11.1.3.4.2. Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams.

11.1.3.4.3. A double system of education exist.

11.1.3.5. Germany.

11.1.3.5.1. Sorted at an early age to be tracked into appropriate careers.

11.1.3.5.2. highly competitive.

11.1.3.6. Finland.

11.1.3.6.1. Highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams.

11.1.3.6.2. All tracking is eliminated.

11.1.3.6.3. Almost no standardized testing.

11.1.3.6.4. High regard to Teachers and has competitive salaries.

11.1.3.6.5. Start out at double the salary in the United States.

11.2. School Processes and cultures.

11.2.1. Teachers are in conflict with students.

11.2.2. Administrators and teachers are in conflict.

11.2.3. Communities are in conflict with administration.

11.2.4. Effecting change in schools is difficult.

11.2.5. Prevailed by the "WE Feeling"

11.2.6. Team building must extend to all parts.

11.2.7. Process and content are interrelated.

11.3. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism.

11.3.1. Reality is hard to ignore.

11.3.2. in 2008, 75% of Teachers are women.

11.3.3. 37% have a B.S.

11.3.4. 60% have a Master's degree.

11.3.5. 1% had doctorates.

11.3.6. Average age is 46.

11.3.7. Shortage of Teachers exists.

11.3.8. Key to teaching is exercising control and flexibility.

11.3.9. Underqualified Teachers.

12. School Leaders in Cullman County.

12.1. Superintendent

12.1.1. Shane Brown

12.2. Chief Financial Officer

12.2.1. Ed Roberson

13. Chapter 8.

13.1. Equality of Opportunity.

13.1.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic is a structural.

13.1.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification.

13.2. Three Systems

13.2.1. Caste. - a persons social level is determined by race or religion.

13.2.2. Estate Systems. - a persons social level is determined by family value and worth

13.2.3. class system. - a persons worth is determined by their ablity to overcome by personal achievement.

13.3. Educational achievementis directly related to family achievement and social class

13.4. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success

13.4.1. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. P. 342

13.5. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975. IDEA 1996

13.6. The Coleman Study

13.6.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. P. 367

13.6.2. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success. P. 367

13.7. College graduates have higher salaries. P.375

13.7.1. The amount of education is directly related to life chances.

14. Chapter. 9.

14.1. Sociological Explanations of Ineuality.

14.1.1. Each students success is based on their own hard work.

14.1.2. Students success is affected by their environment.

14.2. Multidimensional Factor

14.2.1. Include Everything that effects students success.

15. Chapter 10.

15.1. Educational Reform.

15.1.1. A calling for the profession.

15.1.2. Professional knowledge.

15.1.3. Personal Qualities.

15.1.4. Instructional effectiveness.

15.1.5. Good communicator.

15.1.6. lifelong learner.

15.2. School Based Reforms.

15.2.1. School Choice.

15.2.2. Charter schools.

15.2.3. Tuition Vouchers.

15.2.4. Public to Private.

15.3. Teacher Education Programs.

15.3.1. More intellectual demands in education programs.

15.3.2. Attract and retain competent teachers.

15.3.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development.

15.3.4. Teacher Quality.