Foundations of Education Hannah Bendall ED 302 (20279)

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Foundations of Education Hannah Bendall ED 302 (20279) by Mind Map: Foundations of Education Hannah Bendall ED 302 (20279)

1. Chapter 10: Educational Reform and School Improvement

1.1. School-to-work programs- May 4th 1994, Bill Clinton signed the school-to-work opportunities act this was a system to prepare youth for the high-wage, high-skill careers of today's and tomorrow's global economy, it allowed students to explore different careers and see what skills are required for that skill.

1.1.1. Teacher quality-School systems are wanting quality teachers in the classrooms. It is very important that the teacher knows what he/she is doing that they understand what they are teaching.

1.1.1.1. Political reforms means the improvement of what is wrong, In the school system, it is important that if the teacher sees somethings wrong in the classroom, it is important that the teacher fixes the problem, In the school system, the teachers want the community to be involved. When the students can see that the community is involved not only will they fill loves and cared about but they will want to do better in the classroom.

2. Chapter 3: The History of Education

2.1. Thomas Jefferson believed that the best safeguard for democracy was a literate population. He proposed to the Virginia Legislature in 1779, a "Bill for the Moe General Diffusion Knowledge" which provided free education to all children for the first three years of elementary school.

2.2. 1855 the first kindergarten was in the U.S.

2.3. 1983 A nation at risk

2.4. 2001 the No Child Left Behind

2.5. Chapter 4: The Sociology of Education

2.5.1. Schools as well as parents, churches and synagogues and other groups shape children perceptions of the world by process of socialization. In Theoretical perspectives Wool-folk theory allows one to see past the visible and previous and examine the hidden structure. Functionalists view society as a kind of machine where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work. From a conflict point of view, schools are similar to social battlefields. In international theories it is behaviors and interactions between students and students and between students and teachers.

2.5.1.1. 1) Knowledge is the students know how to solve problems in everyday life. 2) Employment is where students are well prepared for their jobs in the future. 3) Education- students who have an education will have a greater advantages in life. 4) Student peer groups- they learn to work well with others. 5) Tracking-refers to the placement of students in curricular programs based on students abilities and inclinations.

3. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

3.1. The schools that an individual attends shape not only his/her life changes but his or her perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.

3.1.1. Identify and describe the elements of change within school processes and school cultures- Schools are unlike other organizations and because of this, the students will always remember what school is like for them. School process is the cultural qualities of school. In the school systems, many have different cultures that are in the school. Willard Waller said that the culture of school are "The school is a unity of interacting personalities. The personalities of all who meet in the school are bound together in an organic relation. The life of the whole is in all it's parts yet the whole could not exist without any of it's part. The school is a social organism (pg. 146).

3.1.1.1. State Superintendent= Michel Sentance Local Superintendent= Heath Grimes Local Board= President-Greg Trapp Vice president- Brett Gist. Board Members= Jerry Groce, Greg Batchelor, Judy Pounders. State Senators= Lsrry Stutts. House of Representatives= Ken Johnson. Representative on state school board= Jeffery Newman. I am district 7

4. Chapter 7: Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

4.1. The school systems teach a specific curriculum that is viewed by the educational department and is also looked and viewed according to how the school system is. The teacher are then to design their lessons plans to how the students are going to understand what is being taught.

4.2. Developmentalist Theory- This theory focuses on the need of the individual student.

4.3. Traditions of teaching- Transformative tradition=the purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. Dialectic teaching- is when the teacher ask the students questions and they answer the question back. The students also ask the teacher questions then the teacher gives the students back the answer.

4.3.1. Included

4.3.2. Included

4.3.3. Excluded

5. Chapter 2: The Politics of Education

5.1. Identify and describe the four purposes of education

5.1.1. 1) Intellectual purposes- which means to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics. To transmit specific knowledge and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills.

5.1.2. 2). Political purposes- which is to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order and to teach children the basic laws of the society.

5.1.3. 3). Social Purposes- which is to help solve social problems. To work as one of many institutions. Also, to ensure social cohesion and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors and values of the society.

5.1.3.1. 4) Economic Purposes- which are to prepare students for their occupational roles and to select, train and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

5.2. Definition of Educational Problems

5.2.1. Define actions as necessary

5.3. 1) Decline of standards which is lowered academic standards and reduced educational quality. 2). Decline of cultural literacy which the school weakens the schools ability to pass on the heritage of American and Western civilizations. 3). Decline of values or of civilization which is the school lost their role of teaching moral standards and values. 4) Decline of authority which is schools lost their traditional disciplinary function and often became chaotic. 5) Schools are stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency.

6. Chapter 5: The Philosophy of Education

6.1. Pragmatism is viewed as American philosophy in the later part of the 19th century. It comes from the Greek word pragma meaning work. Its a philosophy that encourages people to find process that work in order to achieve their desired ends.

6.2. Generic Notions- Aristotle believed that only through studying the material world was it possible for an individual to clarify or develop ideas. Goal of education- to help individuals understand and then apply the principles of science to help solve the problems plaguing the modern world. Role of teachers- deal with abstract notions through he dialectic method but should aim to connect analysis with action as well.

6.3. Method of Instruction- students are encouraged to discuss, analyze, synthesize and apply what they have read to contemporary society. Students are also encouraged to work in groups or individually on research projects, both oral and written. Curriculum- consists of the basics: science, math, reading and writing and humanities.

6.4. Delays

7. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

7.1. For some students, school can be very expensive. The families that are apart of the working-class can not understand English very well and have a hard time in class vs if the student is from high and middle class. Then those students do not have problems with money or with speaking English. An individuals race has a direct impact in how much education he/she is likely to achieve. Depending of the race of the student, depends on how well they will do in school.

7.1.1. Materials

7.1.2. Personel

7.1.3. Services

7.1.4. Duration

7.2. Where the students go to school is related to their race and socioeconomic background. Schools that are less bureaucratic and more academically oriented are better learning environments for students

7.3. Requirements

8. Chapter 9: Explacations of Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural deprivation- suggests that working-class and non white families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage.

8.1.1. Dependencies

8.1.2. Milestones

8.2. The book mentions that cultural difference theorists agree that there are cultural and family differences between working class and non white students, and whits students and white middle class students.

8.2.1. Schedule

8.2.2. Budget

8.3. School-centered explanations- shcool financing, effective vs ineffective school systems. the cultural difference in the schools, and the gender and schooling.