The quest for political stability, 1625-88

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The quest for political stability, 1625-88 by Mind Map: The quest for political stability, 1625-88

1. Why did monarchical government fail in the years 1625-49?

1.1. Charles I and parliament, 1625-29

1.1.1. 1625 Parliament Empty treasury Loan for City of London merchants £60,000 Concerned with parliaments right raise taxation Refusal to grant Tonnage and Poundage Evil Counsellors Mansfield Campaign Cadiz campaign Catholic queen Set up her own court Charles promoted Arminians

1.1.2. 1626 parliament Buckingham Attempts to impeach Dissolved due to impeachment attempts Issued a force loan 1627 the Five Knights case are refuse Habeas Corpus

1.1.3. Confrontation and dissolution, 1628-29 Funding for war with France and Spain Subsidies voted (5) Petition of Right William Laud appointed, Bishop of London Buckingham assassinated by John Felton The Resolution of the 3 Nos Against the growth of Arminianism Tonnage and Poundage Attacks against those who did not pay

1.2. Personal rule and its failure, 1629-40

1.2.1. The significance of the dissolution, 1629-30 Absolute monarchy Louis XIV of France Eleven years tyranny Charles proved to be an effective ruler William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1633 William Wentworth, Lord Strafford Lord Deputy of Ireland

1.2.2. Government and Finance, 1630-36 Treaty of Suza, 1629 Treaty of Madrid, 1630 Annual spending reduced from £500,000 to £70,000 pa Crown Finances Tonnage and Poundage Forrest Laws Monopolies Distraint of Knighthood Ship Money

1.2.3. The new order in Church and state, 1629-36 Opposition strongly Puritan in nature Uniformity and conformity of Arminian religious practice Beauty of Holiness Court of High Commission More clergy emigrated to the new world than excluded from the church

1.2.4. Reaction and resistance, 1636-40 1636, shipping company the Providence Island Company Leaders, Pam, Earl of Warwick, Duke of Bedford, Lord Saye and Sele, Oliver St. John and John Hamden Hampden refused to pay, St. John defended in high court, which found 7 to 5 in favour of the king 1637, Star Chamber Sentence on 3 Puritan writers for attacks on the government By 1639 Yield from Ship Money fell to 20%

1.2.5. The Scottish troubles and collapse of personal rule Highlights Charles lack of understanding of his 3 kingdoms Visits Scotland in 1633 Coronation 1636, Book of Cannons attempts to remodel the Kirk in the shape of the Church of England 1637, introduces the English Prayer Book July a rebellion starts in St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh 1639, both sides raise an army Charles relies on county militia against the trained Scottish troops Signs the treaty of Berwick which ends the 1st Bishops’ War Gentry backlash against Charles’ inability to raise funds The short parliament is called and sits for 3 weeks in April 1640 2nd Bishops’ War sees Charles defeated at Newburn

1.3. The failure to compromise, 1640-49

1.3.1. Parliament attacks the prerogative, 1640-41 Nov 1640, Long Parliament sits with development of Pom’s Junto Impeachment of ‘evil counsellors’ Feb 1641, the Triennial Act The Constitutional Royalists in opposition to Pam introduce the 10 Propositions The right to approve the King’s advisors Introduction of parliamentary privileges

1.3.2. The build up to war, 1641-42 Oct 1641, the Irish rebellion Panic due to tales of violence The 19 Propositions or aka The Grand Remonstrance Nov 1641 Passed by only 11 votes Militia Bill Army under parliament’s control to tackle Irish rebellion Moderates in parliament fearful for the king and flock to his side Charles’ attack on parliament because of rumours of impeachment of the queen 3 Jan, orders the House of Lords to impeach the ringleaders in parliament 4 Jan, Charles I enters parliament to arrest the 5 MPs 10 Jan, Charles leaves London Nov 1642, Charles raises his standard

1.3.3. The victory of parliament, 1642-46 1642-43, King has the advantage Support of majority of gentry and nobility existing officer corps Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice Marginal advantage in October 1642 at the Battle of Edgehill 1643, Pym maintains parliamentary unity Excise tax in parliamentary areas Military defeats A 'peace' faction in parliament who wanted to negotiate for peace Pym seriously ill Signed the Solemn League and Covenant with the Scottish forces Pym's replacement 1644, Earl of Essex performed poorly Peace talks fail in early 1645 Self-Denying Ordinance past in parliament

1.3.4. The search for settlement, 1646-47 Charles surrenders to the Scots April 1646 Charles held by the Scots in Newcastle, offered terms to restore him to the throne Divisions in Parliament Parliament offered terms to Charles which would have restored him to the throne. Not as favourable as the Scottish offer. Politicisation of the army The Levellers demand a more radical proposal than the Head of the Proposals Oct 1647, The Agreement of the People starts the Putney Debates Charles escapes from Hampton Court, is recaptured and sent to Carisbrooke Castle The King sees the issues within the Army and parliament and signs the Engagement with the Scots on 26th December promising a Presbyterian Church in England for military assistance The 2nd Civil War and execution of Charles I, 1648-49 April 1648 Scotland enter England August 1648, Cromwell's army defeats the Scots Some members of parliament still wished to negotiate with Charles 5 December 1648 Colonel Thomas Pride purges parliament of its member who wish to negotiate

2. To what extent did Republican Rule provide a stable government, 1649-60?

2.1. Reasons for the Failure of Republican government 1649-53

2.1.1. The Rule of the Rump Ireland was a royalist stronghold Scotland proclaimed Charles II king in February 1649 Charles II in Holland, not crowned until 1651 Cromwell is appointed Commander in Chief due to Fairfax's unwillingness to fight Scotland The remaining MPs declared itself the sole legislative authority Elected a Council of State In March, abolished the House of Lords and monarchy In May England was declared a Commonwealth

2.1.2. The failure of the Rump The Rump due to being a minority group relied on the New Model Army to exist The Army suppress the Levellers at Burford in May 1649, shooting several of their leaders Cromwell and the Army in August landed in Ireland. Stormed Drogheda and Wexford, slaughtering thousands after surrender. Ireton finished the campaign. Cromwell and the Army then went to Scotland. The 1st Dutch War of 1652-54 Failure to provide political stability The Hale Commission in 1651 to review the legal system Reform slowed down The cost of the Army and campaigns led to a deficit of £700,000 in 1653 Cromwell In 1653 Cromwell decides to take the role of reforming and stability on himself The Rump decides to hold new elections to replace the excluded members, not the current members Cromwell orders the dissolution of the Rump and uses the Army to clear the chamber

2.2. The role of Oliver Cromwell, 1653-60

2.2.1. Nominated Assembly, 1653 Colonel Lambert introduced a new constitution 140 members nominated by the churches Included members from Wales, Scotland and Ireland Answer the call of God Moderate and progressive reforms enacted War with the Dutch continued to protect trade routes Measures to help debtors Regulations to treat lunatics introduced Civil marriages allowed Included radical minority of 5th Monarchists. Conservative gentry considered sinners by the radical saints, December 1653 moderates voted to dissolve the Assembly Major-General John Lambert 3 days later introduced the Instrument of Government

2.2.2. The 1st Protectorate Parliament, 1654-55 A formal constitution with a Council of State and single chamber Parliament of 460 members. Elected every 3 years by propertied class 84 ordinances were issued Banning bear-baiting and cock-fighting Postal services improved Road maintaince Prohibit blasphemy and drunkenness Failure of the 1st Protectorate Parliament Cromwell's concern over the army Resentment over the dissolution of the Rump An Oath to recognise the Instrument of Government and office of Protector was refused Cromwell dissolved in Jan 1655

2.2.3. The major-generals, 1655-56 and the 2nd Protectorate Parliament, 1656-58 Spring 1655, Penruddock uprising defeated Imposed military control over the country Divided in 11 districts, commanded by a Major-General 1656 the 2nd Protectorate Parliament elected. The achievements of the Triers and Ejectors recognised The need to define and limit the power of the Protector saw Cromwell agree to the idea of a new constitution

2.2.4. The Humble Petition and Advice, 1657 Based on the idea of the restoration of the monarchy Government by a king (changed to Lord Protector when Cromwell refused the Crown) The Lords and Commons to govern with the Protector Provision for a hereditary succession Parliament to control the army, and officers of state to be approved by parliament Regular elections and limited religious toleration

3. Why was the Stuart Monarchy restored in 1660 only to collapse 28 years later?

3.1. In Jan 1660, Monck restores order in London. In Feb recalls the Long Parliament. In April a Convention Parliament is presented with the Declaration of Breda. May Parliament agrees and 25th May Charles II returns.

3.1.1. Co-operation and harmony with the political nation

3.1.2. An amnestry for actions taken in the years of war and Interregnum, except for those who had signed the death warrant of Charles I

3.1.3. The settlement of outstanding issues in partnership with parliament

3.1.4. Arrears of pay would be given to the army and religious toleration would continue if the monarchy was restored

3.2. The Restoration Settlement, 1660-1664

3.2.1. The Declaration of Breda meant the terms of restoration was to worked out after the return of the king.

3.2.2. The Convention Parliament was dissolved in December

3.2.3. Early 1661 saw a 5th Monarchist uprising called after Thomas Venner.

3.2.4. In response to rebellion a pro-Royal Cavalier Parliament was elected Limits to the Royal Prerogative in the 1641 Triennial Act amended in 1664 with no mechanism to enforce the calling of parliament Control of the militia however returned to the king in the Militia Act 1661 Venner's uprising resulted in the Savoy Meeting on religion to fail and the passing of the Act of Uniformity in 1662 and the Clarendon Codes. Attempts by Charles II to suspend the Act of Uniformity were made with a Declaration of Indulgence

3.2.5. In finance, Parliament granted some funds however Charles II needed taxation Customs duties = £1.2 million pa Hearth Tax 1662 only raised 1/3 of expected The king was short of funds

3.3. Conflicts between king and parliament, 1665-81

3.3.1. Renewed suspicions 1665-78 Pro-French Foreign Policy 2nd Dutch War, 1665-67 Mother was French Exile in France in the 1650s The Great Plague, 1665 Suspicions the Plague was the work of Catholic advisers to the king. The Great Fire 1666 Rumoured to have been started by Papists, helped by Papists at court In 1667, the Earl of Clarendon took the fall for the failure of war and was replaced by the Cabal. Included 2 Catholics 1668, James, Duke of York announced his conversion to Catholicism 1670, Treaty of Dover, committed England to further war with the Dutch Secret clause for Charles II to convert to Catholicism French subsidy to free the king from dependence on parliament. A 2nd Declaration of Indulgence issued in 1672 Issues with the inclusion of Catholics Felt like the king abusing his prerogative powers to suspend the law. To fund the 2nd Dutch War, Parliament forced the stop of the Indulgence and the passing of the Test Act In recognition of overstepping his powers, Charles II appointed the Earl of Danby as Treasurer A strong Anglican Pro-Dutch foreign policy Use of royal patronage to get the job done Caused opposition in Parliament to develop in those who wished to limit the power of the monarchy

3.3.2. The Popish Plot August 1678, Jesuit educated Anglican priest Titus Oates approached Sir Godfrey with a plot to murder Charles II Godfrey found dead The plot seem more believable now Investigation found letters between employees of James, Duke of York, and Jesuit French agents. Broadsheet publications detailed the plot Oates able to accuse whomever he chose, however his imagination got the better of him and doubts emerged.

3.3.3. The Exclusion Crisis, 1679-81 An opportunity for Whigs to challenge Danby Attempted to impeach Danby for accepted subsidies from France. Charles II dissolved Parliament in 1679 to save saw an anti-Danby majority in elections Charles resistance is not about sentiment but the divine right of kings. In 1679, the 1st Exclusion bill passed the Commons and prevented from the Lords by dissolution In 1680, the new parliament presented the 2nd Exclusion bill, defeated in the Lords with the king in attendance for many Charles ordered the 1681 parliament to meet in Oxford, to avoid the London mob. The Whigs passed the 3rd Exclusion bill so Charles dissolved parliament and order the arrest of Shaftesbury for treason.

3.4. Personal Rule and the collapse of royal power, 1681,88

3.4.1. Rye House Plot In April 1683, a group plotted to kill Charles and James returning from the races and replace with Monmouth. The plot failed, the Whigs were blamed Charles avoided calling a parliament, in contravention to the Triennial Act 1664. Charles began to revising borough charters and the selection process for MPs.

3.4.2. James II and personal rule Parliament were remarkably co-operative Monmouth rebellion in Dorset June 1685 squashed Legacy of civil war had proved the upheaval to the nation and that parliaments could govern

3.4.3. James II in decline James' character and belief Threat to the Protestant religion and the rule of law Fear of Catholic absolutism Alienated most sections of society

3.4.4. Collapse of royal power A letter signed by the Immortal Seven taken to William of Orange The names of the seven highlighted the alienated support William had. The invasion offered a way to pursue war with France by bringing England into the war. William's forces land in Devon in November 1688. James could have won, but hesitated then fled He was recaptured in London, but allowed to escape again as this was the preferred outcome William and Mary accept the offer to take the throne in 1688