Development

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Development by Mind Map: Development

1. Economic

1.1. Trade

1.1.1. brings jobs and opens up markets to buy and sell goods on an international scale, promoting GDP growth GDP growth means people with jobs can pay taxes and those taxes can pay for projects that promote the common good like education or healthcare, which in turn advances the standard of living

1.2. Neo-Colonialism

1.2.1. Developing countries become economically dependent on developed countries to sell products and resources. Which in the case of the peanut of Mozambique, means those developing countries become vulnerable to the changing prices of the single product a countries produce.

1.3. Sustainable development

1.3.1. developing economies depend on fossil fuels which contributes to climate change in a big way, India has enough coal to burn for 300 years. Which leads to climate change and deterrence of development

2. Social

2.1. Inequality of Women

2.1.1. up to 50% of the population not economically viable, means development is severely impeded because the work force isn't working at full capacity, good example would be the Middle East, where less than 25% of women participate in the workforce due to laws and traditional gender roles

2.1.2. Leads to social injustices like loss of education, which means women can never get higher level/ higher paying jobs that serve to represent women in positions of power

2.2. Religious Tolerance

2.2.1. promotion of peace, allowing for development, as people become more tolerant it means conflict goes down and development can rise because time and resources aren't spent on wars

2.3. Vocabulary

2.3.1. "developing" countries are considered to be inadequate and not on par with "developed countries, and very far from an ideal situation

2.3.2. "developed" countries may refer to economically advanced countries with high standards of living and large GDP's, however based on the current model, if every country sued the same amount of resources as a "developed" country such as the United States, we would need the resources of 5 Earths

3. Institutional

3.1. United Nations

3.1.1. MDG and SDG's have been attempted and achieved success in trying to eradicate extreme poverty and disease throughout the world. Good example would be in China where extreme poverty went from 60% to 4% in 15 years.SDG's expand the scope to development of HR and the status of women, as well as addressing climate change and free energy.

3.1.2. UN has been criticized by economists who claim that the UN shouldn't;t take credit for the natural flow of economic advancement, and how hundreds of millions of people are still trapped in poverty, not to mention how the UN didn't eradicate several diseases such as Polio, and TB, which means so many people are still hindered from living better lives because they cannot access resources or they're dying of curable diseases

3.2. IMF

3.2.1. Allows trade and the exchange of money to take place in an orderly fashion

3.2.2. Main criticism is that if a country is focused on paying its loans, they have to cut spending in other areas. Mozambique put a tariff on unshelled cashews. IMF gives emergency money and removes tariff, leading to a time of good competition and then all competition was priced out.

3.3. World Bank

3.3.1. allows developing countries to take out loans in order to develop infrastructure related to food, water, and housing which are essential to maintain a certain standard of living. Good example would be Zimbabwe's loan, which was taken out for various projects, chief among them being a water well digging program in the arid regions of the country

3.3.2. The World Bank is always managed by a representative from the "developed world" and often allocate resources properly, so that government' end up mismanaging the money. Which means development cannot occur because of corruption

3.3.3. Provides loans for developing countries that sponsor projects such as the world's largest dam in Zimbabwe, (Kariba) that provided cheap electricity from hydro power for hundreds of thousands of people.

4. Enviromental

4.1. Natural Resources

4.1.1. Provides jobs that allow the GDP to rise and the economy to develop

4.1.2. competitive on the global marketplace

4.2. Climate Change

4.2.1. overburdened education infrastructure

4.2.2. climate refugees, more and more in the coming decades as changing weather patterns and rising sea levels displace 10's of millions of people

5. Political

5.1. Corruption

5.1.1. mis-allocation of resources, infrastructure projects often go to the highest bidder in developing countries. If the people don't benefit that means development on a local level never takes place

5.2. Role of NGO's

5.2.1. NGO's sponsor development projects that expand access to basic resources in countries that may have had a major disaster. Prime example would be NGO's attempting to revitalize Port-au-Prince after the 2010 earthquake that devastated the Haitian capital.

5.2.2. NGO's can also help draft policy for development initiatives with IGO's such as the UN.