Older Adult

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Older Adult by Mind Map: Older Adult

1. Pulmonary System Pathologies

1.1. Asthma

1.1.1. Lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways

1.2. Chronic bronchitis

1.2.1. Bronchial tubes become inflamed

1.3. Emphysema

1.3.1. Aveoli are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness

1.4. Lung cancer

1.4.1. Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that start in one or both lunges in cells that line the air passages

1.5. Lung abscess

1.5.1. Necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection

2. Oropharyngeal and Gastrointestinal System Pathologies

2.1. Dental problems

2.2. Dysphagia

2.3. Hiatal Hernia

2.3.1. Part of your stomach pushes upward through the diaphragm

2.4. Esophageal Cancer

2.5. Peptic Ulcer Disease

2.5.1. Peptic ulcers develop on the inside of the stomach lining and the upper portion of the small intestine

2.6. Cancer of the Stomach

2.7. Diverticular Disease

2.7.1. Small, bulging pouches that form in the lining of the digestive system

2.8. Colorectal Cancer

2.8.1. Cancer of the large intestine

2.9. Intestinal Obstruction

2.9.1. Blockage that keeps food or liquid from passing through the intestines

2.10. Acute Appendicitis

2.11. Pancreatic Cancer

2.12. Biliary Tract Disease

2.12.1. Inflammation of the gall bladder that develops in the setting of an obstructed cystic or bile duct

3. Nervous System

3.1. Decline in weight and blood flow to brain

3.2. Reduction in neurons, nerve fibers and cerebral blood flow

3.3. Slower response to change in balance

3.4. Changes in sleep patterns with frequent awakening

4. Cardiovascular System

4.1. Heart dimensions are unchanged

4.2. Heart muscle loses efficiency and contractile strength

4.3. Reduced cardiac output with physiologic stress

4.4. Valves become thick and rigid

4.5. Blood vessels reduce elasticity

4.6. Oxygen used less efficiently

4.7. Myocardial muscle less efficient

4.8. Calcification, reduced elasticity of vessels

5. Pulmonary System

5.1. Calcification of costal cartilage, trachea and rib cage more rigid

5.2. Reduction of cough and laryngeal reflexes

5.3. Increased residual capacity and reduced vital capacity

5.4. High risk for respiratory infection

5.5. Respiratory problems develop easily

5.6. Lungs reduce in size and weight

5.7. Decreased elastic recoil

5.8. Loose or brittle teeth can be aspired

6. Renal and Genitourinary Systems

6.1. Decline of renal blood flow

6.2. Glomerular filtration decreased by 50% by age 90

6.3. Reduced bladder capacity

6.4. Nocturia

6.5. Hypertrophy and thickening of the bladder muscle

6.6. Kidney filtration ability decreases

7. Oropharyngeal and Gastrointestinal Systems

7.1. Less acute taste sensations

7.2. Decreased esophageal motility

7.3. Atrophy of the small and large intestines

7.4. Increased risk of aspiration, indigestion and constipation

8. Musculoskeletal System

8.1. Thinning disks and shortened vertebrae

8.2. Reduced muscle mass, strength and movement

8.3. Decreased bone mineral and mass

8.4. Diminished calcium absorption

8.5. Increased risk of fractures

8.6. Decreased body strength

8.7. Connective tissue changes

8.8. Sarcopenia

9. Immune System

9.1. Cell-mediated immunity declines

9.2. T-cell activity declines

9.3. Risk for infection becomes significant

9.4. Inflammatory defenses decline

9.5. Inflammation presents atypically

10. Immune system Pathologies

10.1. Influenza

10.1.1. Highly contagious viral infections of the respiratory passages

10.2. Measles, mumps, rubella

10.2.1. Highly contagious respiratory infection

10.3. Hepatitis A and B

10.3.1. Virus that affects the liver

10.4. Lupus

10.4.1. Inflammation of the skin

11. Renal and Genitourinary System Pathologies

11.1. Bladder Cancer

11.1.1. Cancer that begins in the bladder, often occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder

11.2. Renal calculi

11.2.1. Small, hard mineral deposits that form inside your kidney get stuck inside the urinary tract

11.3. Glomerulonephritis

11.3.1. Inflammation of the glomeruli

12. Musculoskeletal System Pathologies

12.1. Fractures

12.2. Osteoarthritis

12.2.1. Degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone

12.3. Rheumatoid Arthritis

12.3.1. Inflammation in the joints resulting in painful deformity and immobility

12.4. Osteoporosis

12.4.1. Bone becomes brittle and fragile from loss of tissue

12.5. Gout

12.5.1. Excess uric acid accumulates in the blood

12.6. Podiatric Conditions

13. Cardiovascular System Pathologies

13.1. Hypertension

13.1.1. BP >120/80

13.2. Hypotension

13.2.1. BP<120/80

13.3. Congestive HF

13.3.1. Heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should

13.4. Coronary artery disease

13.4.1. Develops when the major blood vessels that supply your heart become damaged or diseased, plaque and inflammation are usually to blame for this

13.5. Hyperlipidemia

13.5.1. Elevated cholesterol levels

13.6. Arrhythmias

13.6.1. Occur when the electrical impulses that coordinate your heartbeats don't work properly, causing the heart to beat too fast, too slow or irregularly

13.7. Peripheral Vascular Disease

13.7.1. Narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to limbs

14. Nervous system Pathologies

14.1. Parkinsons Disease

14.1.1. Progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement, develops gradually, starting with tremors

14.2. Transient Ischemic Attacks

14.2.1. Like stroke, but lasting only a few minutes and causing no permanent damage

14.3. Cerebrovascular Accident

14.3.1. Sudden death of some brain cells due to lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery in the brain

15. Spirituality

15.1. Love

15.1.1. People need to feel that they are cared for

15.2. Meaning/Purpose

15.2.1. Healthy psychological aging for the older adult involves achieving a sense of integrity

15.3. Hope

15.3.1. Expectation for the future

15.4. Dignity

15.4.1. Search for self worth

15.5. Forgiveness

15.5.1. Forgiving and accepting forgiveness is healing

15.6. Gratitude

15.6.1. Being appreciative

15.7. Transcendence

15.7.1. People need to feel that there is a reality beyond themselves

15.8. Faith

15.8.1. Religious/spiritual beliefs

16. Endocrine System

16.1. Thyroid gland atrophies and activity decreases

16.2. Diminished adrenal function

16.3. ACTH secretion decreases

16.4. Volume of pituitary gland decreases

16.5. Insufficient release of insulin and reduced tissue sensitivity to circulating insulin

17. Endocrine System Pathologies

17.1. Type 2 diabetes

17.1.1. Affects the way the body processes glucose

17.2. Hypothyroidism

17.2.1. Subnormal concentration of thyroid hormone

17.3. Hyperthyroidism

17.3.1. Excessive amounts of thyroid hormone

18. Integumentary System

18.1. Flattening of dermal-epidermal junction

18.2. Reduced thickness and vascularity of the dermis

18.3. Reduction of epidermal turnover

18.4. Degeneration of elastic fibers

18.5. Increased coarseness of collagen

18.6. Reduction in melanocytes

19. Integumentary System Pathologies

19.1. Pruritus

19.1.1. Severe itching of skin

19.2. Keratosis

19.2.1. Type of skin growth

19.3. Skin Cancer

19.4. Vascular Lesions

19.4.1. Malformations of capillaries, veins, lymphatic vessels or arteries

19.5. Stasis Dermatitis

19.5.1. Inflammatory skin disease that occurs on the lower extremities

19.6. Pressure Ulcers

19.6.1. Tissue anoxia and ischemia result in necrosis, sloughing and tissue ulceration

20. Sensory System

20.1. Presbyopia

20.2. Reduced pupil size

20.3. Opacification of the lens and vitreous

20.4. Loss of photoreceptors

20.5. Increased sensitivity to glare

20.6. Distortion in death perception

20.7. Impacted cerumen

20.8. Number of functioning taste buds decreased

20.9. Pressure not sensed as easily

20.10. Olfactory function loss

21. Sensory system Pathologies

21.1. Cataracts

21.1.1. Clouding of the lens of transparency

21.2. Glaucoma

21.2.1. Damage to optic nerve from above normal intraocular pressure

21.3. Macular Degeneration

21.3.1. Damage or breakdown of macula leading to loss of central vision

21.4. Detached Retina

21.4.1. Forward placement of retina

21.5. Corneal Ulcer

21.5.1. Inflammation of the cornea accompanied by loss of substance

21.6. Prebycusis

21.6.1. Age related hearing loss

21.7. Otosclerosis

21.7.1. Abnormal growth of bone near middle ear

21.8. Tinnitus

21.8.1. Ringing in ear

22. Sexuality

22.1. Symptom Management

22.1.1. Need for effective management of physical aspects

22.1.2. Nursing knowledge related to menopause is essential (estrogen loss)

22.2. Hormone therapy

22.2.1. Estrogen and progestin increases heart risks

22.2.2. Individual decision for treatment

23. Sleep

23.1. Less sleep is common

23.2. Common sleep disorders

23.2.1. Insomnia

23.2.2. Sleep apnea

23.2.3. Restless leg syndrome

23.3. Drugs can affect sleep

23.4. Important to promote sleep

24. Nutrition

24.1. Required amount of specific nutrients vary over lifetime

24.2. Older adults have reduced need for calories

24.3. Nutritional supplements

24.4. water is essential