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Older Adult by Mind Map: Older Adult

1. Oropharyngeal and Gastrointestinal System Pathologies

1.1. Dental problems

1.2. Dysphagia

1.3. Hiatal Hernia

1.3.1. Part of your stomach pushes upward through the diaphragm

1.4. Esophageal Cancer

1.5. Peptic Ulcer Disease

1.5.1. Peptic ulcers develop on the inside of the stomach lining and the upper portion of the small intestine

1.6. Cancer of the Stomach

1.7. Diverticular Disease

1.7.1. Small, bulging pouches that form in the lining of the digestive system

1.8. Colorectal Cancer

1.8.1. Cancer of the large intestine

1.9. Intestinal Obstruction

1.9.1. Blockage that keeps food or liquid from passing through the intestines

1.10. Acute Appendicitis

1.11. Pancreatic Cancer

1.12. Biliary Tract Disease

1.12.1. Inflammation of the gall bladder that develops in the setting of an obstructed cystic or bile duct

2. Renal and Genitourinary Systems

2.1. Decline of renal blood flow

2.2. Glomerular filtration decreased by 50% by age 90

2.3. Reduced bladder capacity

2.4. Nocturia

2.5. Hypertrophy and thickening of the bladder muscle

2.6. Kidney filtration ability decreases

3. Oropharyngeal and Gastrointestinal Systems

3.1. Less acute taste sensations

3.2. Decreased esophageal motility

3.3. Atrophy of the small and large intestines

3.4. Increased risk of aspiration, indigestion and constipation

4. Musculoskeletal System

4.1. Thinning disks and shortened vertebrae

4.2. Reduced muscle mass, strength and movement

4.3. Decreased bone mineral and mass

4.4. Diminished calcium absorption

4.5. Increased risk of fractures

4.6. Decreased body strength

4.7. Connective tissue changes

4.8. Sarcopenia

5. Immune System

5.1. Cell-mediated immunity declines

5.2. T-cell activity declines

5.3. Risk for infection becomes significant

5.4. Inflammatory defenses decline

5.5. Inflammation presents atypically

6. Immune system Pathologies

6.1. Influenza

6.1.1. Highly contagious viral infections of the respiratory passages

6.2. Measles, mumps, rubella

6.2.1. Highly contagious respiratory infection

6.3. Hepatitis A and B

6.3.1. Virus that affects the liver

6.4. Lupus

6.4.1. Inflammation of the skin

7. Renal and Genitourinary System Pathologies

7.1. Bladder Cancer

7.1.1. Cancer that begins in the bladder, often occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder

7.2. Renal calculi

7.2.1. Small, hard mineral deposits that form inside your kidney get stuck inside the urinary tract

7.3. Glomerulonephritis

7.3.1. Inflammation of the glomeruli

8. Musculoskeletal System Pathologies

8.1. Fractures

8.2. Osteoarthritis

8.2.1. Degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone

8.3. Rheumatoid Arthritis

8.3.1. Inflammation in the joints resulting in painful deformity and immobility

8.4. Osteoporosis

8.4.1. Bone becomes brittle and fragile from loss of tissue

8.5. Gout

8.5.1. Excess uric acid accumulates in the blood

8.6. Podiatric Conditions

9. Endocrine System

9.1. Thyroid gland atrophies and activity decreases

9.2. Diminished adrenal function

9.3. ACTH secretion decreases

9.4. Volume of pituitary gland decreases

9.5. Insufficient release of insulin and reduced tissue sensitivity to circulating insulin

10. Endocrine System Pathologies

10.1. Type 2 diabetes

10.1.1. Affects the way the body processes glucose

10.2. Hypothyroidism

10.2.1. Subnormal concentration of thyroid hormone

10.3. Hyperthyroidism

10.3.1. Excessive amounts of thyroid hormone

11. Sensory System

11.1. Presbyopia

11.2. Reduced pupil size

11.3. Opacification of the lens and vitreous

11.4. Loss of photoreceptors

11.5. Increased sensitivity to glare

11.6. Distortion in death perception

11.7. Impacted cerumen

11.8. Number of functioning taste buds decreased

11.9. Pressure not sensed as easily

11.10. Olfactory function loss

12. Sexuality

12.1. Symptom Management

12.1.1. Need for effective management of physical aspects

12.1.2. Nursing knowledge related to menopause is essential (estrogen loss)

12.2. Hormone therapy

12.2.1. Estrogen and progestin increases heart risks

12.2.2. Individual decision for treatment

13. Sleep

13.1. Less sleep is common

13.2. Common sleep disorders

13.2.1. Insomnia

13.2.2. Sleep apnea

13.2.3. Restless leg syndrome

13.3. Drugs can affect sleep

13.4. Important to promote sleep

14. Pulmonary System Pathologies

14.1. Asthma

14.1.1. Lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways

14.2. Chronic bronchitis

14.2.1. Bronchial tubes become inflamed

14.3. Emphysema

14.3.1. Aveoli are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness

14.4. Lung cancer

14.4.1. Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that start in one or both lunges in cells that line the air passages

14.5. Lung abscess

14.5.1. Necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection

15. Nervous System

15.1. Decline in weight and blood flow to brain

15.2. Reduction in neurons, nerve fibers and cerebral blood flow

15.3. Slower response to change in balance

15.4. Changes in sleep patterns with frequent awakening

16. Cardiovascular System

16.1. Heart dimensions are unchanged

16.2. Heart muscle loses efficiency and contractile strength

16.3. Reduced cardiac output with physiologic stress

16.4. Valves become thick and rigid

16.5. Blood vessels reduce elasticity

16.6. Oxygen used less efficiently

16.7. Myocardial muscle less efficient

16.8. Calcification, reduced elasticity of vessels

17. Pulmonary System

17.1. Calcification of costal cartilage, trachea and rib cage more rigid

17.2. Reduction of cough and laryngeal reflexes

17.3. Increased residual capacity and reduced vital capacity

17.4. High risk for respiratory infection

17.5. Respiratory problems develop easily

17.6. Lungs reduce in size and weight

17.7. Decreased elastic recoil

17.8. Loose or brittle teeth can be aspired

18. Cardiovascular System Pathologies

18.1. Hypertension

18.1.1. BP >120/80

18.2. Hypotension

18.2.1. BP<120/80

18.3. Congestive HF

18.3.1. Heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should

18.4. Coronary artery disease

18.4.1. Develops when the major blood vessels that supply your heart become damaged or diseased, plaque and inflammation are usually to blame for this

18.5. Hyperlipidemia

18.5.1. Elevated cholesterol levels

18.6. Arrhythmias

18.6.1. Occur when the electrical impulses that coordinate your heartbeats don't work properly, causing the heart to beat too fast, too slow or irregularly

18.7. Peripheral Vascular Disease

18.7.1. Narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to limbs

19. Nervous system Pathologies

19.1. Parkinsons Disease

19.1.1. Progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement, develops gradually, starting with tremors

19.2. Transient Ischemic Attacks

19.2.1. Like stroke, but lasting only a few minutes and causing no permanent damage

19.3. Cerebrovascular Accident

19.3.1. Sudden death of some brain cells due to lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery in the brain

20. Spirituality

20.1. Love

20.1.1. People need to feel that they are cared for

20.2. Meaning/Purpose

20.2.1. Healthy psychological aging for the older adult involves achieving a sense of integrity

20.3. Hope

20.3.1. Expectation for the future

20.4. Dignity

20.4.1. Search for self worth

20.5. Forgiveness

20.5.1. Forgiving and accepting forgiveness is healing

20.6. Gratitude

20.6.1. Being appreciative

20.7. Transcendence

20.7.1. People need to feel that there is a reality beyond themselves

20.8. Faith

20.8.1. Religious/spiritual beliefs

21. Integumentary System

21.1. Flattening of dermal-epidermal junction

21.2. Reduced thickness and vascularity of the dermis

21.3. Reduction of epidermal turnover

21.4. Degeneration of elastic fibers

21.5. Increased coarseness of collagen

21.6. Reduction in melanocytes

22. Integumentary System Pathologies

22.1. Pruritus

22.1.1. Severe itching of skin

22.2. Keratosis

22.2.1. Type of skin growth

22.3. Skin Cancer

22.4. Vascular Lesions

22.4.1. Malformations of capillaries, veins, lymphatic vessels or arteries

22.5. Stasis Dermatitis

22.5.1. Inflammatory skin disease that occurs on the lower extremities

22.6. Pressure Ulcers

22.6.1. Tissue anoxia and ischemia result in necrosis, sloughing and tissue ulceration

23. Sensory system Pathologies

23.1. Cataracts

23.1.1. Clouding of the lens of transparency

23.2. Glaucoma

23.2.1. Damage to optic nerve from above normal intraocular pressure

23.3. Macular Degeneration

23.3.1. Damage or breakdown of macula leading to loss of central vision

23.4. Detached Retina

23.4.1. Forward placement of retina

23.5. Corneal Ulcer

23.5.1. Inflammation of the cornea accompanied by loss of substance

23.6. Prebycusis

23.6.1. Age related hearing loss

23.7. Otosclerosis

23.7.1. Abnormal growth of bone near middle ear

23.8. Tinnitus

23.8.1. Ringing in ear

24. Nutrition

24.1. Required amount of specific nutrients vary over lifetime

24.2. Older adults have reduced need for calories

24.3. Nutritional supplements

24.4. water is essential