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Power by Mind Map: Power

1. John Muir (Preservationist): First president of the Sierra Club, Believes nature is a place without humans where wilderness is defined as a place "where man himself is a visitor who does not remain."

2. Resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.

2.1. World Systems Theory

3. Production of food through locally controlled and accessible systems

4. Producing enough food in the country to meet daily calorie needs of populace

5. Food Self-Sufficiency

6. Food Soveriegnty

7. Food Secuirity

7.1. Access to enough food for a healthy and active lifestyle

8. Development

9. Natural Hazards

10. Equity

10.1. Geographic Equity: location and spatial configuration of communities, including their proximity to environmental hazards and sources of pollution.

10.2. Procedural Equity: fairness in the extent that government rules, regulations, evaluation criteria, and enforcement are applied in a nondiscriminatory way.

10.3. Social Equity: the role of social and economic factors such as race, ethnicsity, gender, class, culture, and political power in decision making about environmental issues.

11. Environmental Racism and Justice

12. Dependency Theory

13. Rostow's Stages of Economic Growth

13.1. 1) Traditional society: Limited technology; Static society.

13.2. 2) Preconditions for take-off: Commercial exploitation of agriculture and extraction industry

13.2.1. Transition triggered by external influence, interests, or markets.

13.3. 3) Take-off: Development of a manufacturing sector

13.3.1. Installation of physical infrastructure and emergence of social/political elite

13.4. 4) Drive to Maturity: Development of wider industrial and commercial base

13.4.1. Investment in manufacturing exceeds 10% of national income; development of modern social, economic, and political insttutions.

13.5. 5) High mass consumption

13.5.1. Exploitation of comparative advantages in international trade.

14. Big push to industrialize agriculture and to build infrastructure such as dams and roads.

14.1. Big infrastructure investments could jump start an economy and put it on the path to industrialization.

15. A questioning of modernization in an era of decolnization

16. Study small-scale Global South communities

16.1. Cultural Ecologists set out to study these systems on their own merits, often revealing that these approaches were ecologically and economically rational.

16.2. Cultural Ecologists were not afraid to question so-called modern practices to determine if these really represented an advancement over practices developed locally

17. Post World War II North American and European Optimism

17.1. Belief in the ability of modern technology to solve humanity's problems.

17.1.1. DDT: Used to kill off insects, mosquitoes, high use in american agriculture and pest control in urban areas. Consequences: Pesticides bioaccumulate in animals and destroy food chains, thus ecosystems. (Rachel Carson, "Silent Spring")

18. Human management of renewable resources

19. Natural Change vs Anthropogenic Change

20. Biomes

21. Climate: average condition of the weather over a long period of time

22. Weather: short-term change in moisture and air movement

23. 23.5 degree Tilt of The Earth causes Earth's seasons

23.1. Causes Differential heating of the Earth's Surface

23.1.1. Causes air pressure and temperature differences

24. Colonialization

25. Environmentalism: A response to over-exploitation and urbanization

26. Ecocentric Perspective

26.1. Non-human nature not only matters, but organisms are agents of change, change humans, and deserve consideration and special focus

26.2. "Post-Humanism"

27. Gifford Pinchot (Conservationist): Founded the US Forest Service, saw the wise use of natural resources as the key to sustainable development and production over time

28. Displacement of humans

28.1. Areas Become Subsidized

29. Preservation: Non-consumptive use i.e Wilderness Areas and Parks.

30. Conservation: Within the annual growth increment of a particular resource. Maximum Sustainable Yield.

31. Exploitation: Use of a resource without regard for its long-term productivity.

32. Human Geography: Examination of human or social phenomena.

33. Environment (Physical) Geography: Study of biophysical phenomena.

33.1. Hydrosphere:water in all its forms

33.2. Atmosphere: gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth

33.3. Lithosphere: platform of the life layer

33.4. Biosphere: encompasses all living organisms on Earth

34. Human-Env. Geog: Studying interactions and interelationships of human activity, modification of landscapes, and environmental influences. An emphasis on the role of humans in changing the face of the earth and how, in-turn, this changed environment may influence humans.

35. Scale

35.1. Local

35.2. Regional

35.3. Global

36. Sustainable Development

36.1. Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

37. Social Construction of Nature

37.1. Nature or the environment is constructed mentally by humans and human concepts of nature are culturally, temporally, and politically changing.

37.2. "Socionature"

38. Cultural Ecology

39. Glabalization!

40. Social Darwinism: Racist view on humanity; the superiority of dominant European groups at the expense of subject populations around the world.

41. AgriSystems

41.1. Themes of Cultural Ecology

41.1.1. 1) Society and Nature are intimately connected

41.1.2. 2) Cultural Behavior is considered in its Functional role

41.1.3. 3) Population dynamics influence in food production

41.2. Global North

41.2.1. Political Ecology

41.2.1.1. Situate these local-level dynamics from Cultural ecology in a broader scale of national, regional,, and international forces.

41.2.2. Commercial: Family and corporate farms

41.2.2.1. monocultural

41.2.2.1.1. Uses Fossil fuels, GMOs, Water, Fertilizers, Pesticides, Insecticides

41.2.2.1.2. Modernization Theory

41.3. Global South

41.3.1. Subsistence

41.3.1.1. polycultural

41.3.1.1.1. Agroforestry: mixing crops and trees

41.3.2. Green Revolution

41.3.2.1. Mixed: Industrial & Traditional Systems

41.3.2.2. Agricultural Dual Economy

41.3.2.3. Agricultural Dual Economy

41.3.2.4. Urban Agriculture Japan, Singapore