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Power by Mind Map: Power

1. Food Secuirity

1.1. Access to enough food for a healthy and active lifestyle

2. Rostow's Stages of Economic Growth

2.1. 1) Traditional society: Limited technology; Static society.

2.2. 2) Preconditions for take-off: Commercial exploitation of agriculture and extraction industry

2.2.1. Transition triggered by external influence, interests, or markets.

2.3. 3) Take-off: Development of a manufacturing sector

2.3.1. Installation of physical infrastructure and emergence of social/political elite

2.4. 4) Drive to Maturity: Development of wider industrial and commercial base

2.4.1. Investment in manufacturing exceeds 10% of national income; development of modern social, economic, and political insttutions.

2.5. 5) High mass consumption

2.5.1. Exploitation of comparative advantages in international trade.

3. Big push to industrialize agriculture and to build infrastructure such as dams and roads.

3.1. Big infrastructure investments could jump start an economy and put it on the path to industrialization.

4. A questioning of modernization in an era of decolnization

5. Post World War II North American and European Optimism

5.1. Belief in the ability of modern technology to solve humanity's problems.

5.1.1. DDT: Used to kill off insects, mosquitoes, high use in american agriculture and pest control in urban areas. Consequences: Pesticides bioaccumulate in animals and destroy food chains, thus ecosystems. (Rachel Carson, "Silent Spring")

6. Human management of renewable resources

7. Environmentalism: A response to over-exploitation and urbanization

8. Displacement of humans

8.1. Areas Become Subsidized

9. Conservation: Within the annual growth increment of a particular resource. Maximum Sustainable Yield.

10. Exploitation: Use of a resource without regard for its long-term productivity.

11. Human Geography: Examination of human or social phenomena.

12. Human-Env. Geog: Studying interactions and interelationships of human activity, modification of landscapes, and environmental influences. An emphasis on the role of humans in changing the face of the earth and how, in-turn, this changed environment may influence humans.

13. Sustainable Development

13.1. Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

14. Social Construction of Nature

14.1. Nature or the environment is constructed mentally by humans and human concepts of nature are culturally, temporally, and politically changing.

14.2. "Socionature"

15. Cultural Ecology

16. Glabalization!

17. John Muir (Preservationist): First president of the Sierra Club, Believes nature is a place without humans where wilderness is defined as a place "where man himself is a visitor who does not remain."

18. Resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.

18.1. World Systems Theory

19. Production of food through locally controlled and accessible systems

20. Producing enough food in the country to meet daily calorie needs of populace

21. Food Self-Sufficiency

22. Food Soveriegnty

23. Development

24. Natural Hazards

25. Equity

25.1. Geographic Equity: location and spatial configuration of communities, including their proximity to environmental hazards and sources of pollution.

25.2. Procedural Equity: fairness in the extent that government rules, regulations, evaluation criteria, and enforcement are applied in a nondiscriminatory way.

25.3. Social Equity: the role of social and economic factors such as race, ethnicsity, gender, class, culture, and political power in decision making about environmental issues.

26. Environmental Racism and Justice

27. Dependency Theory

28. Study small-scale Global South communities

28.1. Cultural Ecologists set out to study these systems on their own merits, often revealing that these approaches were ecologically and economically rational.

28.2. Cultural Ecologists were not afraid to question so-called modern practices to determine if these really represented an advancement over practices developed locally

29. Natural Change vs Anthropogenic Change

30. Biomes

31. Climate: average condition of the weather over a long period of time

32. Weather: short-term change in moisture and air movement

33. 23.5 degree Tilt of The Earth causes Earth's seasons

33.1. Causes Differential heating of the Earth's Surface

33.1.1. Causes air pressure and temperature differences

34. Colonialization

35. Ecocentric Perspective

35.1. Non-human nature not only matters, but organisms are agents of change, change humans, and deserve consideration and special focus

35.2. "Post-Humanism"

36. Gifford Pinchot (Conservationist): Founded the US Forest Service, saw the wise use of natural resources as the key to sustainable development and production over time

37. Preservation: Non-consumptive use i.e Wilderness Areas and Parks.

38. Environment (Physical) Geography: Study of biophysical phenomena.

38.1. Hydrosphere:water in all its forms

38.2. Atmosphere: gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth

38.3. Lithosphere: platform of the life layer

38.4. Biosphere: encompasses all living organisms on Earth

39. Scale

39.1. Local

39.2. Regional

39.3. Global

40. Social Darwinism: Racist view on humanity; the superiority of dominant European groups at the expense of subject populations around the world.

41. AgriSystems

41.1. Themes of Cultural Ecology

41.1.1. 1) Society and Nature are intimately connected

41.1.2. 2) Cultural Behavior is considered in its Functional role

41.1.3. 3) Population dynamics influence in food production

41.2. Global North

41.2.1. Political Ecology Situate these local-level dynamics from Cultural ecology in a broader scale of national, regional,, and international forces.

41.2.2. Commercial: Family and corporate farms monocultural Uses Fossil fuels, GMOs, Water, Fertilizers, Pesticides, Insecticides Modernization Theory

41.3. Global South

41.3.1. Subsistence polycultural Agroforestry: mixing crops and trees

41.3.2. Green Revolution Mixed: Industrial & Traditional Systems Agricultural Dual Economy Agricultural Dual Economy Urban Agriculture Japan, Singapore