Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

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Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart by Mind Map: Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular  System: The Heart

1. Anatomy of the heart

1.1. Location

1.1.1. Mediastinum

1.1.2. Surfaces Anterior & inferior Right & left

1.2. Size/Shape

1.2.1. Apex & base

1.3. Orientation

1.4. Coverings

1.4.1. Fibrous

1.4.2. Serous Parietal Visceral (epicardium)

1.4.3. Pericardial fluid

1.4.4. Pericardial cavity

1.5. Heart walls

1.5.1. Epicardium

1.5.2. Myocardium

1.5.3. Endocardium

1.6. Heart Chambers

1.6.1. Atria Right atrium pectinate muscles interatrial septum fossa ovalis tricuspid valve (right AV valve) Left atrium bicuspid valve (left AV valve, mitral valve)

1.6.2. Ventricles Right ventricle trabecular carnaeae chordae tendineae papillary muscles interventricular septum pulmonary valve Left ventricle aortic valve ligamentum arteriosum

1.6.3. Auricles

1.6.4. Sulci Coronary sulcus Anterior interventricular sulcus Posterior interventricular sulcus

2. Heart valves and circulation of blood

2.1. Systemic and pulmonary circulations

2.2. Coronary circulation

2.2.1. Coronary arteries Left coronary artery anterior IV branch circumflex branch Right coronary artery posterior IV branch marginal branch

2.2.2. Collateral circulation anastomoses

2.2.3. Coronary veins Coronary sinus great cardiac vein middle cardiac vein small cardiac vein anterior cardiac veins

2.2.4. Reperfusion Oxygen free radicals

2.3. Operation of the AV valves

2.4. Operation of the semilunar valves

3. Cardiac muscle tissue and the cardiac conduction system

3.1. Histology

3.1.1. Intercalated discs desmosomes gap junctions

3.2. Autorhythmic fibers: the conduction system

3.2.1. Functions Pacemaker Cardiac conduction system SA node AV node AV bundle (bundle of His) Right and left bundle branches Purkinje fibers

3.3. Action potential and contraction of contractile fibers

3.3.1. Depolarization Voltage-gated Na+ channels

3.3.2. Plateau Voltage-gated slow Ca++ channels Volgate-gated K+ channels

3.3.3. Repolarization

3.3.4. Refractory period

3.4. ATP production in cardiac muscle

3.5. Electrocardiogram

3.5.1. Waves P wave atrial depolarization QRS complex rapid ventricular depolarization T wave ventricular repolarization

3.5.2. Intervals P-Q interval S-T segment Q-T interval

3.6. Correlation of ECG waves with atrial and ventricular systole

3.6.1. Definitions systole diastole

3.6.2. Steps 1 2 3 4 5 6

4. The cardiac cycle

4.1. Pressure and volume changes during the cardiac cycle

4.1.1. Atrial systole 1 2 3 end diastolic volume 4

4.1.2. Ventricular systole 5 isovolumetric contraction 6 ventricular ejection 7 end systolic volume 8

4.1.3. Relaxation period 9 ventricular diastole dicrotic wave isovolumetric relaxation 10 ventricular filling

4.2. Heart sounds

4.2.1. Lubb

4.2.2. Dupp

5. Cardiac output

5.1. Terms

5.1.1. Stroke volume

5.1.2. heart rate

5.1.3. Cardiac reserve

5.1.4. Tachycardia

5.1.5. Bradycardia

5.2. Regulation of stroke volume

5.2.1. Preload Frank-Starling law of the heart EDV Duration of ventricular systole Venous return

5.2.2. Contractility Positive inotrope Negative inotrope

5.2.3. Afterload

5.3. Regulation of heart rate

5.3.1. Autonomic regulation of HR Cardiovascular center Proprioceptors Chemoreceptors Baroreceptors Cardiac accelerator nerves Vagus nerves

5.3.2. Chemical regulation of HR Hormones Cations

5.3.3. Other factors