Avoiding Bias & Fake News

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Avoiding Bias & Fake News by Mind Map: Avoiding Bias & Fake News

1. Lagniappe

1.1. History

1.1.1. WWII

1.1.1.1. In the 1930s, Adolf Hitler arrested and executed ‘fake news’ journalists who rightfully claimed that Jews were being exterminated

1.1.1.2. Fighting the Nazis With Fake News: A new documentary rediscovers a World War II campaign that was stranger than nonfiction

1.1.2. The Long and Brutal History of Fake News

1.1.3. 6 fake news stories in real history

1.1.4. Trump’s “fake news” playbook is ripped straight from the pages of a 180-year-old media hoax

1.2. Bots

1.2.1. Political Bots

1.3. Politics

1.3.1. Equality

1.3.1.1. Unless The Government Acts Soon, Fake News Will Produce Deep Information Inequality

1.3.2. Misinformation

1.3.2.1. Trump cranks up fog machine to confuse American public

1.3.2.2. Michigan Daily: Fake news travels fast

1.3.3. Polarization

1.3.3.1. The Identity Politics Of The Trump Administration

1.3.3.2. Partisan media and fake newsonomics

1.3.3.3. Is the Internet Causing Political Polarization? Evidence from Demographics

1.3.4. NBC News: Fake News? Hear a 'Great Politician's' Perspective

1.3.5. Politifact: 2016 Lie of the Year: Fake news

1.4. Sciences

1.4.1. Fake news invades science and science journalism as well as politics

1.4.2. NY Times: 20th Century Fox Used Fake News to Publicize ‘A Cure for Wellness’

1.4.3. What makes anti-vaccine websites persuasive? A content analysis of techniques used by anti-vaccine websites to engender anti-vaccine sentiment

1.5. Case Studies

1.5.1. Media Matters: How Media Outlets Helped Trump Push A Fake News Story About Bikers And His Inauguration

1.5.2. No, attack squirrels didn't gnaw off Detroit man's testicle

1.5.3. Detroit News: Study: Fake election news flooded Mich. Twitter feeds

1.5.4. France24: How to spread fake news about Paris riots: A guide

1.5.5. Three thousand fake tanks: How a network of conspiracy sites spread a fake story about US reinforcements in Europe

1.5.6. Political Bots: Academic Papers

2. Strategies

2.1. Read/listen broadly.

2.1.1. How

2.1.1.1. left/right/center

2.1.1.2. geographic diversity

2.1.1.2.1. events? local hometown rag

2.1.1.2.2. read outside USA for news about USA

2.1.1.2.3. Look at trends across geographic regions and external major powers

2.1.1.3. independently published

2.1.1.4. blogs & podcasts & citizen journalist

2.1.2. Why

2.1.2.1. "You should know by now :-) I have ALWAYS been reading broadly. How can you know the opposite POV if you don't see how they communicate, what makes them tick and how they manipulate facts."

2.1.3. What

2.1.3.1. 10 Investigative Reporting Outlets to Follow

2.1.4. Associated Actions

2.1.4.1. "Thank you for reading broadly."

2.1.4.1.1. Thank others who read broadly, who share what they've found, and who promote the vision of reading broadly and without bias.

2.2. Critical thinking

2.2.1. Local (UMich) resources

2.2.1.1. Learning Resource Center

2.2.1.2. Sweetland

2.2.1.3. U-Library

2.2.2. What is logic? What is bias?

2.2.2.1. *A world of possible futures

2.2.2.1.1. How to detect and bust spew freaks, politicians, liars, etc.

2.2.2.1.2. Commonly held false data

2.2.2.2. Bias & logical fallacies

2.2.2.2.1. Interactive: Infographic: Your logical fallacy is ...

2.2.2.2.2. io9: The 12 cognitive biases that prevent you from being rational

2.2.2.2.3. NoBeliefs: List of common Fallacies

2.2.2.2.4. RationalWiki: List of cognitive biases

2.2.2.2.5. Wikipedia: List of cognitive biases

2.2.2.3. Logical reasoning & argumentation

2.2.2.3.1. WikiJob: What is logical reasoning?

2.2.2.3.2. Wikipedia: Logical reasoning

2.2.2.3.3. ProofWiki:Definition:Logical Argument

2.2.2.3.4. Purdue Online Writing Lab: Logic in Argumentative Writing

2.2.2.3.5. Dartmouth: Institute for Writing and Rhetoric: Logic & Argument

2.2.2.4. About

2.2.2.4.1. What is logic? Is logical thinking a way to discover or to debate? The answers from philosophy and mathematics define human knowledge

2.2.3. Core concepts

2.2.4. Criteria assessment

2.2.4.1. what is the difference between a news story, an edtorial, humor, and an advertisement?

2.2.5. What is "fake news"?

2.2.5.1. Examples

2.2.5.1.1. Docufiction

2.2.5.1.2. Gossip

2.2.5.1.3. Hoax news

2.2.5.1.4. Parody news

2.2.5.1.5. Propaganda

2.2.5.1.6. Tabloids

2.2.5.2. Definitions

2.2.5.2.1. "Fake news, or hoax news, refers to false information or propaganda published under the guise of being authentic news." Webopedia: fake news

2.2.5.2.2. "Fake news is made-up stuff, masterfully manipulated to look like credible journalistic reports that are easily spread online to large audiences willing to believe the fictions and spread the word." Politifact

2.2.5.2.3. "Fake news websites (also referred to as hoax news) deliberately publish hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news — often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect. Unlike news satire, fake news websites seek to mislead, rather than entertain, readers for financial, political, or other gain." Wikipedia

2.2.5.2.4. "1) False or otherwise extremely exaggerated news stories used to generate money from ad revenue by using clickbait titles or used to sell tabloids in the grocery check-out line. 2) A term for a news article that doesn't validate one's political opinion." Urban Dictionary

2.2.5.2.5. "[email protected]'s three criteria for what actually counts as fake news. We need to be careful with our terminology. #infoneeds" Joy Mayor (1) 100% false (2) Was knowingly created as being false (3) Has an economic motive.

2.3. Check before you share

2.3.1. Check the DATE

2.3.2. Check the source

2.3.3. Check a fact-checker

2.3.3.1. Fact checkers

2.3.3.1.1. ABC Fact Check (AU)

2.3.3.1.2. FactCheck

2.3.3.1.3. NPR

2.3.3.1.4. Politifact

2.3.3.1.5. Snopes

2.3.3.1.6. Trump Tweet Fact-checker

2.3.3.1.7. Urban Legends

2.3.3.1.8. Washington Post

2.3.3.2. About fact checkers

2.3.3.2.1. Fact checkers have bias too

2.3.3.2.2. American Press Institute: Fact checking

2.3.3.2.3. Ballotpedia: The methodologies of fact-checking

2.3.3.2.4. Duke Reporters Lab: Global Fact Checking Database & Map

2.3.3.2.5. Duke Reporters Lab: How We Identify Fact Checkers

2.3.3.2.6. The Hill: But who will check Facebooks 'fact-checkers?'

2.3.3.2.7. MIT Technology Review: The Limits of Fact-Checking Facebook

2.3.3.2.8. Pacific Standard: How Wikipedia Is Cultivating an Army of Fact Checkers to Battle Fake News

2.3.3.2.9. Politico: The Facts About Fact Checkers

2.3.3.2.10. Poynter: Fact-Checking

2.3.3.2.11. Utne Reader: The Facts About Fact-Checking

2.3.3.2.12. Washington Post: But who will fact-check the fact-checkers?

2.3.3.2.13. Wikipedia: Fact Checking

2.3.3.2.14. Zero Hedge: Visualizing the Fake News Problem (Infographic)

2.3.3.3. Fact checking examples

2.3.3.3.1. Internet Archive: This week’s TV news highlights with fact checks

2.3.4. Check for bias

2.4. Go to the original sources

2.4.1. Immersion

2.4.1.1. talk to people outside your bubble

2.4.1.2. learn a foreign language

2.4.1.3. engage with people from other places

2.4.1.4. read international news

2.4.2. Examples

2.4.2.1. Check White House actual documents

2.4.2.2. Read the home town paper for events

2.4.2.3. Look at data and non-profit sources

2.5. Use caution

2.5.1. Who watches the watchers?

2.6. Tips & Tools for Assessing Bias

2.6.1. How to Inoculate the Public Against Misinformation About Climate Change

2.6.2. Inoculating the Public against Misinformation about Climate Change

3. Tools

3.1. Apps

3.1.1. Responding

3.1.1.1. Countable

3.1.1.2. Stance

3.1.2. DIY Fake News

3.1.2.1. Break Your Own News

3.1.2.2. Fake News Maker

3.1.2.3. Fake newspaper creator (iOS)

3.1.2.4. Fake newspaper generator

3.1.2.5. More

3.1.3. WARNING: Fake Apps, too

3.1.3.1. How to spot fake iOS and Android apps

3.2. Plug-ins

3.2.1. Entertainment

3.2.1.1. Real Donald

3.2.1.2. Make America Kittens Again

3.2.2. Tools

3.2.2.1. B.S. Detector

3.2.2.2. Fact Pop Up (Duke Reporters Lab)

3.2.2.2.1. FactPopUp Chrome Extension

3.2.2.2.2. Improved version of FactPopUp, our real-time fact-checking tool, now available

3.2.2.2.3. Reporters’ Lab to experiment with pop-up fact-checking during debate

3.3. Bias assessment

3.3.1. in research

3.3.1.1. Cochrane Risk Of Bias Tool

3.3.1.2. ROBIS

3.3.1.3. ROBINS-I

3.3.1.4. NIH Quality Assessment Tool

3.3.2. in people

3.3.2.1. Project Implicit

3.3.3. in communities

3.3.3.1. BART (Bias Assessment & Response Team)

3.3.4. in language

3.3.4.1. "Left Language, Right Language"

3.4. Critical thinking & debate

3.4.1. Tools & Educational Resources

3.4.1.1. CRAP Detection

3.4.1.2. Critical Skills Thinking Cheatsheet Infographic

3.4.1.3. CHAIN of TRUST (see page 2 of PDF)

3.4.2. Healthcare

3.4.2.1. PubMed Commons

3.4.2.2. QuackWatch

3.4.2.2.1. Quackwatch review - Is Stephen Barrett a Quack? Is he fair, balanced, or biased?

3.4.2.3. Skeptical Raptor

3.4.3. More

3.5. Environmental scanning

3.5.1. AllSides

3.5.1.1. Polarization

3.5.2. Blue feed, Red feed

3.5.3. CabinetVotes

3.5.4. GovTrack

3.6. For Writing

3.6.1. Journalists' Toolbox

3.6.2. Field Guide to Fake News

3.6.3. Duke: Reporters Lab

3.6.4. First Draft News

3.6.5. Newsela

3.7. Fake news checkers & related tools

3.7.1. Political

3.7.1.1. Nonpartisan

3.7.1.1.1. Balletopedia

3.7.1.1.2. FactCheck

3.7.1.1.3. OpenSecrets

3.7.1.1.4. Politifact

3.7.1.1.5. PRWatch: Map of TV Stations That Aired Fake News

3.7.1.1.6. PropOrNot (Propaganda, International)

3.7.1.1.7. Sunlight Foundation

3.7.1.1.8. Washington Post Fact Checker

3.7.1.2. Partisan

3.7.1.2.1. DrudgeReport

3.7.1.2.2. Media Matters

3.7.1.2.3. Newsbusters

3.7.2. General

3.7.2.1. Fake News Checker

3.7.2.2. DigiPo (Digital Polarization Initiative)

3.7.2.2.1. About

3.7.2.3. FlackCheck

3.7.2.4. Google: See fact checks in search results

3.7.2.5. HoaxSlayer

3.7.2.6. Hoaxy

3.7.2.6.1. This Tool Maps the Spread of Fake News Online

3.7.2.7. Media Bias Fact Check

3.7.2.7.1. Is this a biased source?

3.7.2.8. ProCon

3.7.2.9. Real or Satire

3.7.2.9.1. Websites that are ...

3.7.2.10. Snopes

3.7.2.10.1. Snopes’ Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors

3.7.2.11. Truth or Fiction

3.7.3. About

3.7.3.1. International Fact-Checking Network

3.7.3.1.1. About the International Fact-Checking Network

3.7.3.1.2. Fact Checkers Code of Principles

3.7.3.1.3. Fact-Checking: How to Improve Your Skills in Accountability Journalism

3.7.3.2. The Daily Mail Snopes Story And Fact Checking The Fact Checkers

3.7.3.3. The Fake Newsletter (Craig Silverman)

3.7.3.4. Poynter

3.7.3.5. Washington Post: The Fact Checker’s guide for detecting fake news

3.7.3.5.1. Determine whether the article is from a legitimate website

3.7.3.5.2. Check the ‘contact us’ page

3.7.3.5.3. Examine the byline of the reporter and see whether it makes sense

3.7.3.5.4. Read the article closely

3.7.3.5.5. Scrutinize the sources

3.7.3.5.6. Look at the ads

3.7.3.5.7. Use search engines to double-check

4. Examples

4.1. Taxonomy of Trump Tweets

4.1.1. Article

4.1.2. Tweet

4.1.3. Taxonomy

4.1.3.1. Pre-emptive framing

4.1.3.2. Diversion

4.1.3.3. Deflection

4.1.3.4. Trial balloon

4.2. Fake News Sites

4.2.1. 70 News

4.2.2. ABC News (dot CO)

4.2.3. The Boston Tribune

4.2.4. Burrard Street Journal

4.2.5. Christian Times

4.2.6. Civic Tribune

4.2.7. The DC Gazette

4.2.8. Empire Herald

4.2.9. EN: Empire News

4.2.10. Huzlers

4.2.11. If You Only News

4.2.12. Info Wars

4.2.13. National Report

4.2.14. NewsLo / Politicops

4.2.15. Now 8 News

4.2.16. The Onion

4.2.17. React 365

4.2.18. Real News Right Now

4.2.19. Rile News

4.2.20. World News Report

4.2.21. Your News Wire

4.3. Collections

4.3.1. Melissa Zimdars

4.3.1.1. False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and Satirical “News” Sources (~150 more) [PDF]

4.3.1.2. False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and Satirical "News" Sources (Google Doc) [~170+]

4.3.1.2.1. By type of bias

4.3.1.3. ABOUT: List of 141 Fake (and Real) News Websites Goes Viral After Trump Wins Presidency

4.3.1.4. ABOUT: Fed up with fake news, Facebook users are solving the problem with a simple list

4.3.1.5. ABOUT: Trendolyzer Statistics

4.3.2. Media ReDesign

4.3.2.1. Design Solutions for Fake News (syllabus?)

4.3.3. CBS News: Don't get fooled by these fake news sites

4.3.4. Business Insider: These are the most and least trusted news outlets in America

4.3.5. Daily Dot: Here are all the 'fake news' sites to watch out for on Facebook

4.3.6. Imgur: A decent breakdown of all things real and fake news.

4.3.7. Pantheos: Please Stop Sharing Links to These Sites

4.3.8. SciBabe: An Incomplete List Of Complete Bullshit Websites

4.3.9. Claim Sources (Google Doc w/ list & analysis)

5. Articles & More from Education, Libraries Etc.

5.1. Voices

5.1.1. Brooke Borel

5.1.1.1. Brooke Borel on fact-checking and fake news

5.1.1.2. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking

5.1.1.3. Fact-Checking Won’t Save Us From Fake News

5.1.2. Daniel Dennett

5.1.2.1. Daniel Dennett: ‘I begrudge every hour I have to spend worrying about politics’

5.1.2.1.1. "The real danger that’s facing us is we’ve lost respect for truth and facts. People have discovered that it’s much easier to destroy reputations for credibility than it is to maintain them. It doesn’t matter how good your facts are, somebody else can spread the rumour that you’re fake news. We’re entering a period of epistemological murk and uncertainty that we’ve not experienced since the middle ages."

5.2. Themes

5.2.1. Economics

5.2.1.1. AVAAZ: Kick Fake News Out of Our Elections

5.2.1.1.1. "There's a law that can clear fake news from our feeds forever -- it's already on the table in Germany and we can bring it to the Netherlands. The idea is so simple: make the platforms that spread and profit from fake news and hate speech pay if they don't remove it quick. "

5.2.1.2. Advertising

5.2.1.2.1. This is how Facebook’s fake-news writers make money

5.2.1.2.2. The Best Way to Quash Fake News? Choke Off Its Ad Money

5.2.1.2.3. Without these ads, there wouldn't be money in fake news

5.2.1.3. Who & Where

5.2.1.3.1. How Teens In The Balkans Are Duping Trump Supporters With Fake News: BuzzFeed News identified more than 100 pro-Trump websites being run from a single town in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

5.2.1.3.2. Fake News: How a Partying Macedonian Teen Earns Thousands Publishing Lies

5.2.1.3.3. INSIDE THE MACEDONIAN FAKE-NEWS COMPLEX

5.2.1.4. 101Geek: How To Make Big Money Online With Fake News – Full Guide

5.2.1.4.1. How not to be shut down

5.2.2. Education

5.2.2.1. About

5.2.2.1.1. BBC: Schools should teach children how to spot fake news

5.2.2.1.2. Fortune: More and More Teachers Are Holding Classes on How to Avoid Fake News

5.2.2.1.3. Japan Times: Facebook, Google testing apps to spot fake news but experts say key is being educated

5.2.2.1.4. Nieman Labs: This “Wikipedia for fact-checking” by students makes more room for context and origins of claims online

5.2.2.1.5. USA Today: Can 'only education' solve the fake news problem?

5.2.2.1.6. Vox: I taught my 5th-graders how to spot fake news. Now they won’t stop fact-checking me.

5.2.2.2. Examples from the Media

5.2.2.2.1. BBC Future: How to Avoid Falling for Lies and Fake News

5.2.2.2.2. FactCheck.org: How to Spot Fake News

5.2.2.2.3. Futurist: Learn to spot ‘alternative facts’ in science

5.2.2.2.4. GovTech: What to Do About Fake News, Fake Apps and Fake Government Services

5.2.2.2.5. The Guardian: What is fake news? How to spot it and what you can do to stop it

5.2.2.2.6. Huffington Post: How To Recognize A Fake News Story: 9 helpful tips to stop yourself from sharing false information.

5.2.2.2.7. USA Today: How to Spot Fake News

5.2.2.3. Examples from Education

5.2.2.3.1. CRAP/CRAAP Detection

5.2.2.3.2. Holly Clark: Find, Validate, Use

5.2.2.3.3. Open Learning MOOC

5.2.2.3.4. U. Cambridge: 'Psychological vaccine’ could help immunise public against ‘fake news’ on climate change – study

5.2.2.3.5. UofM: Fake News and the Web of Deceit

5.2.2.3.6. UofM: University of Michigan Teach-Out: Fake News, Facts, and Alternative Facts (Youtube)

5.2.2.3.7. Yale: How to Inoculate the Public Against Misinformation About Climate Change

5.2.3. Libraries

5.2.3.1. Classes

5.2.3.1.1. U-M Library battles fake news with new class

5.2.3.1.2. Library Battles Fake News with New Class

5.2.3.2. Books & Reading Lists

5.2.3.2.1. KidLit Resists

5.2.3.3. In the News

5.2.3.3.1. ALAnews: New report chronicles library community’s front line battles against fake news, censorship, bigotry

5.2.3.3.2. ALA: Programming Librarian: Fake News: A Library Resource Round-Up

5.2.3.3.3. American Libraries: Fighting Fake News, How libraries can lead the way on media literacy

5.2.3.3.4. American Association of School Librarians: School Libraries Fight Fake News

5.2.3.3.5. ACRLog: Information Literacy and Fake News

5.2.3.3.6. Boingboing: Libraries must resist trumpism

5.2.3.3.7. Christian Science Monitor: The fight against fake news is putting librarians on the front line – and they say they’re ready

5.2.3.3.8. Daily Herald: Librarians can combat 'fake news,' panel says

5.2.3.3.9. HuffPost: After Trump Was Elected, Librarians Had To Rethink Their System For Fact-Checking

5.2.3.3.10. Jason Griffey: Stand, Fight, Resist

5.2.3.3.11. LA Times: How to weather the Trump administration: Head to the library

5.2.3.3.12. The Library Combats Fake News with Educational Guide

5.2.3.3.13. Library Journal: Libraries and Fake Facts

5.2.3.3.14. MTV: In Trump's America, Activist Librarians who won't be shushed, Librarians are getting ready to fight fake news, hate crimes, and whatever lies ahead

5.2.3.3.15. Seattle Times: Librarians take up arms against fake news

5.2.3.3.16. The Verge: In the war on fake news, school librarians have a huge role to play

5.2.3.3.17. Washington Post: Museums and libraries fight ‘alternative facts’ with a #DayofFacts

5.2.3.4. Events, Lectures, Panels

5.2.3.4.1. ‘A Post-Truth Nation’ panel hosted Feb. 22 by Vanderbilt Libraries

5.2.3.4.2. Attend 'Fake News: How To Spot It' At Silver Spring Library

5.2.3.4.3. Davenport Library to Host "The Rise of Fake News"

5.2.3.4.4. Libraries vs Fake News

5.2.3.4.5. Longmont Library moves 'fake news' lecture; opens up 40 more spots

5.2.3.5. LibGuides

5.2.3.5.1. Albuquerque Public Library: Fake News

5.2.3.5.2. Bowdoin: Fake vs. Fact

5.2.3.5.3. CUNY: act Checking, Verification & Fake News

5.2.3.5.4. Duquesne University: Fake News and False Information

5.2.3.5.5. Harvard: Fake News, Misinformation, and Propaganda

5.2.3.5.6. Hillsborough Community College: Fake News, Misleading News, Biased News: Evaluating Sources

5.2.3.5.7. Indiana University: Fake News

5.2.3.5.8. Loyola U: Fake News and Evaluating Sources

5.2.3.5.9. Mount Allison U: Fake News Guide

5.2.3.5.10. PACE University: Real News vs. Fake News

5.2.3.5.11. PSU: Fake News

5.2.3.5.12. San Rafael Public Library: HELP! MY NEWS IS FAKE! INFORMATION LITERACY GUIDE

5.2.3.5.13. SFU: Fake News

5.2.3.5.14. SUNY - Albany: Fake News

5.2.3.5.15. UC-Berkeley:Real News/Fake News

5.2.3.5.16. U Michigan: What is "Fake News"?

5.2.3.5.17. U Toronto: How do I spot fake news?

5.2.3.5.18. UVA: Fake News

5.2.3.5.19. University of Washington: Evaluating Information: Fake News

5.2.3.5.20. University of Mississippi: Fake News or the Real Deal?

5.2.3.5.21. WCU: Hunter Library: Is it Fake?

5.2.3.5.22. WSA: Parody News

5.2.3.6. Projects

5.2.3.6.1. #DayOfFacts

5.2.3.6.2. Library Freedom Project

5.2.3.6.3. LibrariesResist

5.2.3.7. Workshops

5.2.3.7.1. Arlington Heights librarians take on fake news

5.2.3.7.2. Longmont Library creates program to help decipher real and fake news

5.2.3.8. Write

5.2.3.8.1. Fake news or legit? 5 clues you can apply

5.2.4. Psychology

5.2.4.1. Association for Psychological Science: Why Do We Believe Fake News? Accepting Inaccurate Information Is Less Work Than Being Critical, According To Research

5.2.4.2. Forbes: 'Psychological Vaccine' May Protect Against Fake News, Alternative Facts

5.2.4.3. Nature: How Facebook, fake news and friends are warping your memory

5.2.4.4. New Republic: There’s a Psychological Reason for the Appeal of Fake News, We tend to trust our friends more than experts. Now we're paying for it.

5.2.4.5. Newsweek: WHY WE FALL FOR FAKE NEWS: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ONLINE NEWS CONSUMPTION

5.2.4.6. Phys.org: Psychological 'vaccine' could help immunize public against 'fake news' on climate change

5.2.4.7. Psychology Today: What We Know About Fake News, Researchers are learning why people believe fake news, and how to stop it.

5.2.4.8. Psychology Today: Fake News: Why We Fall For It

5.2.4.9. Psychology Today: A Brief History of Fake News, How spoofers and trollers learned to monetize gullibility

5.2.4.10. Psychology Today: On Conservatives, Liberals, and Fake News, Political differences in negatively-biased credulity.

5.2.4.11. USA Today: The Fake web: why we're so apt to believe fake news, apps and reviews

5.2.5. Technology

5.2.5.1. Apple: Tim Cook

5.2.5.1.1. Apple's Tim Cook: Fake news is 'killing people's minds'

5.2.5.1.2. Tim Cook: Fake news is 'killing people's minds'

5.2.5.2. Facebook

5.2.5.2.1. Facebook to Label ‘Fake News’ with Help of Partisan ‘Fact Checkers’

5.2.5.2.2. Facebook, Google testing apps to spot fake news but experts say key is being educated

5.2.5.2.3. Facebook Algorithm Tweak to Favor 'Authentic' Content

5.2.5.2.4. Facebook’s failure: did fake news and polarized politics get Trump elected?

5.2.5.2.5. This is now what happens when you try to post fake news on Facebook

5.2.5.3. Reddit

5.2.5.3.1. The Life, Death And Rebirth Of ‘Fake News’ On Reddit

5.2.5.3.2. How Reddit Talked About The 2016 Presidential Campaign, From ‘Basket Of Deplorables’ To ‘Yuge’

5.2.5.4. Getting automated fact-checking from science fiction to reality

5.2.5.5. Tech can help us spot fake news, but there's only one real way to stop it

5.2.5.6. Machine Learning Finds “Fake News” with 88% Accuracy