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1. Politics of Education

1.1. The Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual Teaches Basic Cognitive Skills (reading, writing, math, basic knowledge)

1.1.2. Political Teaches Patriotism (prepares citizens, assimilates diverse cultural groups, teaches laws of society)

1.1.3. Social Helps solve social problems (work, family, church, and key role in the stability of any society)

1.1.4. Economic Prepares students for their future roles in education or work (select, train, allocate)

1.2. The Role of the School

1.2.1. Conservative Perspective Providing the necessary educational training to maximize economic and social productivity. Essential to economic and social stability

1.2.2. Liberal Perspective Stresses the training and socializing along with ensuring all students have equal opportunity. Teaches children to respect cultural diversity Stresses the importance of citizenship Helps develop an individuals talents, creativity, and sense of self.

1.2.3. Radical Perspective Argues that schools reproduce economic, social and political in equality Capitalists Economy

1.3. Explanations of Unequal Performance

1.3.1. Conservative Perspective Believes students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work and initiative Achievements are based on hard work and sacrifices

1.3.2. Liberal Perspective Believes that students begin school with different life chances and advancements than others and society should equalize through policies and programs. (especially disadvantaged backgrounds)

1.3.3. Radical Perspective Believes students start school unequally Radicals believes it is caused by economic systems Radicals believes this can change in the political economic structure

1.4. Definition of Educational Problems

1.4.1. Conservative Perspective Decline of Standards 1960s & 70s Schools lowered academic Standards. Decline of Cultural Literacy Schools watered down the curriculum and this affected the ability to pass on American Heritage Decline of values or of civilization Schools lost their role of standards and values. Decline of Authority Schools lost their disciplinary function and became chaotic Believe that schools are effected by bureaucracy and inefficiency.

1.4.2. Liberal Perspective Schools have limited the achievements of the poor and minority Schools emphasize too much on discipline and authority instead of helping students develop. The differences in quality between urban and suburban schools are the central problem to inequalities. The traditional curriculum leaves out the diverse cultures.

1.4.3. Radical Perspective Education has failed the poor, minorities, and women classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic Believe that schools promote conformity through the American Society. Education promotes inequality Opportunity Results

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement that has had the most influence on education.

2.1.1. Education for Women and African Americans Women's education was viewed as biologically harmful and stressful Emma Hart Willard Catherine Esther Beecher Mary Lyon

2.2. Historical Interpretation of US Education

2.2.1. Democratic Liberal School Believe that each period of education involved expanding opportunities to larger populations Ellwood Cubberly Merle Curti Lawrence A. Cremin

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perpectives

3.1.1. School Functionalism Creates structures, programs, and curricula that encourage social unity. Conflict Theory Direct correspondence between the organization of schools Interactionalism School must be viewed wholistacally.

3.1.2. Society Functionalism Stresses the interdependence of the social system Conflict Theory Views society as a economic, cultural, and military power. Interactionalism Looks at the big picture and makes it important to examine and analyze the learning and children

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals that have the greatest impact on students.

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes Academic programs and policies make a difference in student learning. Students that continue studies in the summer make greater gains in knowledge. Consistent discipline and make student achievement levels rise. More education that individuals receive are more likely to read newspapers, books, magazines, and take part in politics and public affairs.

3.2.2. Employment Graduating from college will lead to better employment opportunities. Corporations hire those with higher education. Education is unrelated to job performance. Individuals earn more money with higher education.

3.2.3. Teacher Behavior Teachers have a huge impact on students Teachers wear several occupational hats. Instructor Disciplinarian Bureaucrat Employer Friend Confidant Educator Teachers that encourage students help students perform with full potential.

3.2.4. Peer Groups and Interacting Students that hang out with rebellious groups are headed toward low status jobs. Four major types of college students are: Careerists Intellectuals Strivers Unconnected

3.2.5. Gender Gender Discrimination Men are usually paid more Women have fewer occupational opportunites Girls start school cognitively and socially ahead of boys. Girls end school with lower self esteem and lower aspirations than boys. Most teachers are female. Most administrators are male. Traditionally textbooks ignore women's accomplishments and social contributions. Higher rates of women go to college.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic Notions Influenced by the theory of evolution Ideas that proposed educators to start with needs and interest of children and the allow children to participate in planning his/her course of study and depend heavily on experimental learning.

4.1.2. Key Researchers John Dewey Influenced progressive education Instructmentalism Experimentalism

4.1.3. Goal of Education Philosophy Conjoint communicated experience Dialectic of freedom

4.1.4. Role of the Teacher Teachers assume the peripheral position of facilitator. Teachers encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study.

4.1.5. Methods of Instruction Children learn in groups and individually Problem solving or Inquiry Method

4.1.6. Curriculum Academic and vocational disciplines in an integrated interconnected way. Expanding Environments Curriculum changes as the social order changes and as children's interests and needs change.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Limestone County School District

5.1.1. STATE SENATORS Tim Melson William L Holtzclaw Arthur Orr

5.1.2. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Lynn Greer Micky Hammon Phil Williams

5.1.3. STATE SUPERINTENDENT Michael Sentance



5.1.6. LOCAL SCHOOL BOARD Mr. Earl Glaze- District 7 Mr. Bret McGill- District 2 Mr. Edward Winter- District 4 Mr. Anthony Hilliard- District 6 Mr. Charles Shoulders- District 1 Mr. Ronald Christ- District 3 Mr. Bradley Young- District 5

5.2. School Process

5.2.1. Identifying the powerful cultural qualities of the school Emotional recall, cognitive outcomes, atmosphere, smells, etc.

5.3. School Culture

5.3.1. Extremely Vulnerable to disruption and the continuity of authority. Schools are deeply political

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Social Efficiency Curriculumn

6.1.1. Rooted in the belief that different groups of students, with different sets of needs and aspirations, should receive different types of schooling. Funtionalist Curriculum concentrates on the function of what is taught in schools and its relationship to the role of schools with in society. Conflict Therists A radical view that does not believe that schools teach liberal values and attitudes, they believe that a school has a hidden curriculum that teaches the attitudes and behaviors required to work and the formal curriculum represents the cultural interests in society.

6.2. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. MIMETIC TRADITION Older tradition, easier, more harmonious

6.2.2. TRANSFORMATIVE TRADITION A transformation of one kind or another in the person being taught, more deeply integrated, more enduring

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class Education is expensive, some students need parantel financial support. Upper class expect students to finish school, working class and underclass have lower expectations. Middle and upper middle class are more likely to speak standard English. which is an educational asset. Peers have a significant influence on students attitudes toward learning. Studies show that class is related to achievement on reading tests and basic tests

7.1.2. Race Despite efforts in the 60s race is a direct impact 5.2 % white students drop out while 9.3% are African American 17.6% are Hispanic African Americans have lower SAT scores which is the test to lead one into college. It is difficult to separate race from class.

7.1.3. Gender Women are often rated as being better students than men Females are less likely to drop out and more likely to have a higher level of reading proficiency and writing than males. Males do better in mathematics proficiency This allows for males to score higher on the SATs

7.2. Coleman Study of 1982

7.2.1. Response 1 "Where an individual goes to school is often related to her race and socioeconomic background, but the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class" (Exploring Education, p 369)

7.2.2. Response 2 Coleman and his colleagues argued that private schools were more effective in their learning environment than public schools. Private schools demand more from students than public schools

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.1.1. Definition of cultural deprivation Paternalistic at best and racist at worst. Critics argue that this theory removes responsibility from school and teachers and places it on families. This theory also suggests that working class and nonwhite families lack cultural resources such as books and arrive at school at a disadvantage.

8.1.2. 2 types would be working class and non whites

8.2. School-centered explanations for educational inequality

8.2.1. Genetic Differences Also known as biological argument. Social scientists believe that environmental and social factors are responsible for behavior. Example would be the school performance of groups that are genetically inherited such as intelligence.

8.2.2. Cultural Differences Theorist agree that there are cultural and family differences between working class, non white students, and white middle class students.

8.2.3. School Finances There is a huge difference in the funding provided between affluent and poor districts. Public schools are financed through local, state, and federal sources. Property values determine the property taxes therefore the taxes for more expensive homes are in communities that have higher incomes.

8.2.4. Gender and Schooling Genders are said that a male behavior negatively impacts a females behavior. Women are more caring while men are more competitive and intellectual.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. School - Business Partnerships Addresses the fundamental problems facing US education. This reform was formed to produce graduates necessary for revitalization of the US economy. This reform is suppose to increase test scores and improve grade promotion rates.

9.1.2. School to Work Programs This reform was put in place to extend a vocational emphasis on non college students to provide them with skills to be successful in their employment and to stress how important work based learning is. School to Work programs allows students to explore different careers, provide skill training for the field, and provide credentials to the student to develop standards.

9.2. Societal, Economic, Community, or Political reforms.

9.2.1. School Finance Reforms This reform provides proper funding to poorer school districts to provide thorough and efficient education. Preschool is part of this reform, full day kindergarten, and funded facilities to help eliminate over crowding. Social services, increased security, technology, school to work, after school, and summer school programs also fall under this reform. This improves schooling for low income and minority children by eliminating achievement gaps.

9.2.2. Full Service and Community Schools This reform not only focuses on the whole child but also the whole community. This reform meets students and their family's educational, physical, psychological and social needs. Some of the services provided are adult education, health clinics, recreation facility's, after school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, job placements and tutoring. This reform is to try to prevent problems and support the community.