# Structures and Forces by Johnathan and Joey

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Structures and Forces by Johnathan and Joey

## 1. Structures

### 1.1. Shell

1.1.1. What is a shell structure?

1.1.2. It is when there is a solid outside but there is a hollow inside

1.1.2.1. an Egg

1.1.2.2. A Jar

### 1.2. Combination

1.2.1. What is a combination structure?

1.2.2. A combination structure all the types of structures combined. It mostly consists of all 3 structure types combined

1.2.2.1. a House

1.2.2.2. a Bridge

### 1.3. Frame

1.3.1. What is a frame structure?

1.3.2. A frame structure is a structure made up of a frame. Examples are cars and spider webs.

1.3.2.1. a Car Frame

1.3.2.2. Spider Web

### 1.4. Solid

1.4.1. What is a solid structure?

1.4.2. A solid structure is a structure that is solid and has no openings all the way through

1.4.2.1. an Apple

1.4.2.2. a Rock

2.1.1. What is a Live load?

2.1.2.1. The human and the pillow is the live load and the bed is the dead load.

2.1.2.2. The human is the live load applying pressure to the chair which is the dead load, by sitting on it.

2.2.1. What is a dynamic load?

2.2.2.1. Wind

2.2.2.2. Rain

2.3.2.1. Humans and the furniture are the live load and the house is the dead load. The humans are applying pressure to the house by standing and sitting on it.

2.3.2.2. The human is the live load and the chair is the dead load. The human is applying pressure on the chair by sitting on it.

2.4.1. What is a Static Load?

2.4.2. The gravity's effect on a structure

2.4.2.1. The plates on a table

2.4.2.2. Food on a plate

## 3. Forces

### 3.1. Compression

3.1.1. What is compression?

3.1.2. A compression action is to push. For example, compression can take place when a person is doing a pushup.

3.1.2.1. Pushup

3.1.2.2. Nail being hit into wood

### 3.2. Torsion

3.2.1. What is torsion?

3.2.2. A torsion force is when something is twisted. For example, somebody wringing out their morning face towel.

3.2.2.1. Twisting a towel

3.2.2.2. Pencil Sharpener and Pencil

### 3.3. Shear

3.3.1. What is shear?

3.3.2. A shear action is to bend. For example, when a piece of metal is curved under heat.

3.3.2.1. Metal is being bent under heat

3.3.2.2. Nails being bent by a hammer

### 3.4. Tension

3.4.1. What is Tension?

3.4.2. A tension action is a pulling force. For example, when a rubber band is pulled on from both sides.

3.4.2.1. A rubber band being pulled on

3.4.2.2. Fishing line with a large fish on the end

## 4. Keywords

### 4.1. Arch

4.1.1. A structure that is curved to support a lot of weight because some of the weight is also being carried on the sides to the supports

4.1.1.1. Arch

4.1.1.2. Arch Bridge

### 4.2. Beam

4.2.1. A structure that is flat and is supported at each end

4.2.1.1. Beams

4.2.1.2. Beam Bridge

### 4.3. Box Beams

4.3.1. A long beam that looks like an empty rectangular prism or a hollow long box

4.3.1.1. Metal Box Beam

4.3.1.2. Wooden Box Beam

### 4.4. Cantiliver

4.4.1. A cantilever is a structure that is supported at one end and is also flat

4.4.1.1. a Cantilever Structure

4.4.1.2. A Cantilever Bridge

### 4.5. Cantilever Frame

4.5.1. Mainly used in bridges for building, they are U-Shaped supports to support buildings and objects. They can be seen in the eiffel tower

4.5.1.1. Cantilever Frame

4.5.1.2. a Bike has a cantilever frame

### 4.6. Center of Gravity

4.6.1. The part with the most weight in an object is the center of gravity.

4.6.1.1. Balancing Bird's center of gravity is at the tip of the beak

4.6.1.2. Seesaw's center of gravity depends on if there are any people on it. If there isn't any people on it, then the center of gravity is in the middle

### 4.7. Column

4.7.1. A structure that is solid and can support by itself and could be used to support other buildings

4.7.1.1. Column

4.7.1.2. a Pillar

### 4.8. Corrugated Metal

4.8.1. When rust sets in on a sheet of metal

4.8.1.1. Corrugated Metal

4.8.1.2. Corrugated Metal

### 4.9. External Force

4.9.1. An external force is any force that is applying force from the outside

4.9.1.1. Wind

4.9.1.2. Rain

### 4.10. Force

4.10.1. A pull or a push that affects the direction shape or speed of the structure

4.10.1.1. Push

4.10.1.2. Pull

### 4.11. Gravity

4.11.1. A natural force that pulls objects to each to the ground. Without

4.11.1.1. Gravity

### 4.12. I-Beams

4.12.1. A capital "I" shaped beam in cross-section; t is more lighter than a solid beam the same size

4.12.1.1. I-Beam

4.12.1.2. I-Beam Structure

### 4.13. Sensor

4.13.1. Any technology that can reveal world stats for example, the heat, the pressure or the sound and changes of amounts to these things

4.13.1.1. Thermometer

4.13.1.2. Heat sensors

### 4.14. Stability

4.14.1. When a structure can stay in its position when an external force (ex. rain, wind) has affected it

4.14.1.1. Stability

4.14.1.2. Stability

### 4.15. Structural Stress

4.15.1. The effect of all the forces applied to the structure after a long time

4.15.1.1. Structural Stess

4.15.1.2. Structural Stress of a Bridge

### 4.16. Structural Fatigue

4.16.1. A structure's permanent changes made from internal and external forces

4.16.1.1. Structural Fatigue

4.16.1.2. Crane's Structural Fatigue

### 4.17. Structure Component

4.17.1. A structure part where strength can be added

4.17.1.1. Structural Component

4.17.1.2. Car's Structural Component

### 4.18. Strength

4.18.1. When a structure can resist forces like torsion, shear, compression and tension

4.18.1.1. Legs are spread out to resist compression

4.18.1.2. Rubber Bands

### 4.19. Structural Failure

4.19.1. When a structure falls apart because of external and internal forces reacting to it

4.19.1.1. Structural Failure

4.19.1.2. House Fallen Down Because of Structural Failure

### 4.20. Plane of Application

4.20.1. The structure's side that has been affected by a force

4.20.1.1. plane of Application

4.20.1.2. Force being applied

### 4.21. Point of Application

4.21.1. The accurate part of a structure where force is being applied

4.21.1.1. Point of Application

4.21.1.2. Hammer and Nail

### 4.22. Product Recall

4.22.1. Order back very failed products that has been sold to consumers by producers or creators

4.22.1.1. Tylenol

4.22.1.2. Merck (Vioxx)

### 4.23. Truss

4.23.1. Joined together by firm framework of beams which is usually in the shape of connecting triangles

4.23.1.1. Truss

4.23.1.2. This Roof is Made up of Truss