Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Educatrion

1.1. Four Purposes of Educaton

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual Purposes- Students should be taught cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics skills.

1.1.2. 2. Political Purposes- Students should be taught the political order of the time, history of the government's political arena, and be shaped how to become model citizens that participate in future politics.

1.1.3. 3. Social Purposes- Students should learn how to coexist and work with others. This will prepare students for life events, such as going to college, finding a job, and working well with others at that job.

1.1.4. 4. Economic Purposes- Students should have gained cognitive skills, social skills, and other job ready skills that will help them excel in their professional careers.

1.2. The Role of the School

1.2.1. The Liberal Perspective- Educational liberals will place a high value on subjects such as equal opportunity and equal rights. Their goal is to limit extreme differences from one school to another, which allows overall equality across the board.

1.3. Explanations of Unequal Performance

1.3.1. Radical Explanation: This theory states that a student who enters from lower socioeconomic backgrounds begin school with unequal opportunities. This leads to educational failure which does not blame the educational system but blames the economic system.

1.4. Definition of Educational Problems

1.4.1. The Conservative Definition: Schools have lost their traditional role of teaching morals standards and values to their students. Schools have also had a decline in authority because they have lost their traditional ways of disciplinary action.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Historical Reform Movement: Desegregation- In the 1960's, the United States seen an educational movement that would forever change the impact of the public schools. With the ending of Jim Crow laws and ordered desegregation, schools were now made equally for all races. This changed the landscape of education because it promoted equal opportunities and equal rights of education for all school aged children.

2.2. Brown v. Board of Education - With this ruling in 1954, all schools systems would have to end segregation of blacks and whites and would have to begin the integration process. This lead the way for freedom marches, parades, protests, and civil victories for African Americans.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Functionalism: Viewing society as a machine where one part articulates with another to produce energy which is required to make society function.

3.2. Conflict Theory: A theory that is emphasized on struggle where schools are compared to a battlefield. (Students v. teachers; teachers v. administration)

3.3. Internationalism: The process in which a child is labeled as gifted or learning disabled.

3.4. Five Effects of Education on Individuals

3.4.1. 1.Education and Mobility: There is an important difference between educational amount and educational route. One states that the more schooling a person has, the more successful they will be. The other states that where and when a person goes to school can effect how many educational goals one can reach. If someone attends a private school, they may be more likely to go further than someone who had a free, public education.

3.4.2. 2. Each school has a structure. The larger the school, the more resource that school may have to offer. However, set back may occur because of the competition levels. At a smaller school, students are more likely to have better teacher-student relationships and more one-on-one educational time. Unlike large schools, small schools have a tougher time acquiring the proper and needed resources.

3.4.3. 3. Teacher Behavior: Teachers must understand that it is very important to have a positive and friendly attitude towards their students at all times. Teachers have many duties to accomplish throughout the day, but they must always separates those duties and stay professional. The more a teacher demands from his/her students, the more praise the students require if those expectations are met. Students thrive and mimic the attitude and drive of their teachers.

3.4.4. 4. Student Peer Groups and Alienation: Students group themselves more by looks and style than any other reason. When a student is outside of the "norm" then that student can be alienated and sometimes neglected. Students can also feel neglected if the teacher steers clear of their direction. It is very important for educators to always embrace every students talents, culture, and style so each student can feel comfortable and safe in their classroom.

3.4.5. 5. Educational Inequality: Income, power, and property influence society the most. If a child comes from a lower socioeconomic status that the other majority, this student can have unequal expectations placed on them. Teachers must make sure that their educational goals are not blocking mobility of any of their students, but encouraging growth beyond the students current situation.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. State Senator for Jackson County- Steve Livingston

4.2. House of Representative for Jackson County- Richie Whorton

4.3. Alabama Superintendant- Tommy Bice

4.4. Representative on State School Board- Mary Scott Hunter

4.5. Scottsboro City Schools Superintendent- Sandra Spivey

4.6. Scottsboro City Schools Board Members- Daryl Eustace, Hollie Thompson, Julie Gentry, John Esslinger, and Judy McCary

4.7. Educational System in Japan- The first system was established in the 1880's. It is highly competitive and to get admitted to prestigious university students are required to pass exams that are extremely competitive. 95% of students graduate from high school. Work ethic is entrenched in the Japanese culture that makes the Japanese educational system efficient and effective. A lot of Japanese students are exposed to two educational systems. The first one is traditional public schools and the second in non-formal schools such as tutorial opportunities.

5. Curriculum and Petagogy

5.1. Social Efficiency Cirriculum

5.2. Was developed in the early 20th century in response to the development of mass public education. This theory uses standardized testing to place students into ability groups and curriculum tracts. This theory is also based off Dewey's beliefs in the type of curriculum stemmed from his progressive vision. This places students into different groups by needs based schooling.

5.3. Modern Functionalist Theory

5.4. This theory stresses the role of the schools in preparing students for the increasingly complex roles required in a modern society. The school curriculum is designed to enable students to function within society. The school began to move away from memorization of facts and started teaching students how to make it in a technocratic society. Also history and language curriculum is not as important.

5.5. Interactional Theory

5.6. These theories are critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives. Interactional theories are based on what schools are like on an everyday level. The students are labeled gifted or learning disabled from an interactional view it is important to analyze since these actions bring many assumptions about children and learning.

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Six basic Principles for education of all handicapped Children Laws

6.1.1. 1. The right of access to public education programs. (2.) The individualization of services. (3) The principle of least restrictive environment. (4) The scope of broadened services to be provided by the schools and a set of procedures for determining them. (5) The general guidelines for identifying disability. (6) The principle of primary state and local responsibilities.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Student Centered Explanations

7.1.1. Why do students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds do less in school? It became aware that these students attended inferior schools. School that spent less money on students and learning sources, extracurricular activities, and inferior teachers. Research provided that it wasn't the schools it was the specific groups of student that influenced performances.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. Privatization

8.1.1. Staring in the 1990s, public education and private education companies became blurred.

8.2. School Finance Reforms

8.2.1. In 1990, the court ruled that more funding was needed to serve in poorer school districts. In 1998 the state was required to include supplemental packages to schools such as preschool and renovation plans. Social services, increased security, alternative education, school-to-work, after school, and summer programs were incorporated.

9. Philosophy of Education

9.1. Pragmatism: The role of the truth of meaning of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical outcomes.

9.2. Generic Notations: Pragmatism was founded on the new psychology, behaviorism, and philosophy that the attainment for a better society was through education. John Dewey believed in a "embryonic community" in which students could learn from both books and from experimentation.

9.3. Key Researchers: The Pragmatist roots can be traces back to the English philosopher Francis Bacon. Bacon thought that persuasion to abandon traditional ways would help pick up a more experimental approach. John Locke thought that people could pick up these ideas through their senses and not through the materials of this world.

9.4. Goal of Education: John Dewey believed that philosophy had a responsibility to society and that ideas required laboratory testing. He believed that schools would be a great place to integrate new theories.

9.5. Role of Teacher: This theory holds that the teacher controls the classroom. The teacher is responsible for instruction, assessment, encouragement, writing the curriculum, and helping plan study.

9.6. Method of Instruction: Children learn individually and together in groups. This theory left and open window where one could study, open problem solve, and imply an experimental method with or without a group setting.

9.7. Curriculum: This follows Dewey's notion of core curriculum or an integrated curriculum. Teachers can use lessons which acquire "expanding environments" where students are able to use and find reasoning within multiple subjects, not just on particular subject.