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Learning (Instructional) design and technology by Mind Map: Learning (Instructional) design
and technology
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Learning (Instructional) design and technology



Objective: Use systematic instructional design procedures and employ a variety of instruction media to accomplish the goals (Reiser, 2001)  


From Week 1 lecture case studies


Vocational Training

Commercial (eg. Computer Manufacturing Companies - HP)

T&D On Demand


ICT in class


Hybrid (Partly distance learning)


Reiser (2001)

Jonassen (1999)

Categories of activities

Instructional Media (Hard)

History on Instructional Media, Definition, Physical means via instruction is presented to learners, Examples, 1900's: School Museums, 1910's: Instructional Films, 1930's: Radios, 1940's: Audiovisual devices, 1950's: Instructional TV, 1950's-1995: Computers (CAI), Problems of the old instructional media, A mean of having learner interacts with instructional content only, Example - A demo CAI system.. You are only the one who interacts with the system

Trend of Instructional Media, 1995 onwards: Computers with Internet Connection, Increasing multimedia capabilities, Consist of (Mixed with) words and pictures, New instruction media come more slowly than expected by enthusiasts, After 1999: Web 2.0, Wiki, Blog, Social Space, RSS, Podcast, Latest Trend: Mobile Learning, Types of Educational applications, Administration, Calendar, diaries...etc., Referential, Dictionary,E-books, Document readers...etc, Location Aware, Museum guides, field notes, etc., Data Collection, Excel, Notes taking..etc, Scentific, Multimedia, Interactive, Study cards, drawing pads..Response Technologyetc, PRS in HKUST, Microworld, Second life, Piano playing app in iPad..etc

Instructional Design (Soft)

What is the instructional design?

Evolving Learning Theories, 1st : Behaviorism, Overview, Instructional Design Example, Behavioral Objective Movement, Identify the specific objective learners to achieve (Reiser 2001), Goals are specified, quantifiable, terminal behaviors (Saettler, 1990), Break down objectives into measurable tasks, Teaching Machine Phase, MC Machine, Programmed Instruction Movement, present instruction in a small steps, provide immediate feedback, Died out because the focus is on hardware, not course content (Saettler, 1990), Individualized instructional Movement, Computer-assisted learning, Learning controlled by program developer, not the learner, System Approach, Increase the quality of instruction (Gaff, 1975), Similar to computer flowchart, Referential Educational Applications, Interactive Educational Applications, 2nd: Cognitivism, Overview, Nature of human learning base on Cognitive Science research, Dual Channel Assumption, Limited Capacity Assumption, Active Learning Assumption, 3rd: Constructivism, Overview, Instructional Design Implications, Show reality, Real and authentic tasks, Vygotsky's learning principle, Case-based, Foster reflective practice, Knowledge Construction, Collaboration, Model of Constructivist Learning Environment, Summary, Not for reproductive learning, Youtube Video on Constructivism, Instruction Design Example, Knowledge Building, Microworld Educational Applications

Conclusion: There is no one best Learning Theory in the world, Behavioral Approach: For facilitate Mastery and learning background information, require low degree of processing by learners, e.g. Lectures Sessions, Cognitive Approach: For teaching problem-solving tactics. For learners that have enough contextual knowledge, e.g. Laboratory Sessions, Constructive Approach: For dealing with ill-defined problems, demand high levels of processing. Highest level of thinking, e.g. Project-Based Learning, Typology of Problem Solving

Instructional Design in Action

Besides different learning theories, instructional design is also affected by the underlying theories of different teachers.

Dominant Areas

According to the research by Churchill (2006), teachers' dominant areas can be divded into Technology, Students, Teachers and Learning

Student-centered learning

Direct Instruction, Example

Teaching Strategy

REAL, Reciprocal teaching, Problem-Based Learning, Cognitive Apprenticeship, Anchored Instruction

Resources-Based Learning (RBLE), Before the "Digital Age", During the "Digital Age", Component 1: Resources, Static, Dynamic, Component 2: Contexts, Externally directed, Learner generated, Reflection, Negotiated, Component 3: Tools, Searching Tool, Processing Tools, Manipulating tools, Communicating tools, Component 4: Scaffolds, Conceptual scaffolds, Metacognitive scaffolds, Procedural scaffolds, Strategic scaffolds, Real-life example using RBLE

Assessment Strategy

Contextualized, complex intellectual, Not MC


Design Methods, Multimedia Effect, Coherence Effect, Spatial Contiguity Effect, Personalization Effect

Design Theory, Multimedia Learning Theory, 4C/ID Theory, Learning by doing