The ten commandments: Are they still relevant? Exodus Chapter 20

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The ten commandments: Are they still relevant? Exodus Chapter 20 by Mind Map: The ten commandments: Are they still relevant? Exodus Chapter 20

1. Torah

1.1. 20.2

1.1.1. I the LORD am your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, the house of bondage

1.2. Commentary

1.2.1. Rashi

1.2.1.1. אשר הוצאתיך מארץ מצרים WHO HAVE BROUGHT THEE OUT OF THE LAND OF EGYPT — That act of bringing you out is alone of sufficient importance that you should subject yourselves to Me. Another explanation: because He had revealed Himself to them at the Red Sea as a mighty man of war and here He revealed Himself as a grey-beard filled with compassion, as it is stated in connection with the Giving of the Law, (Exodus 24:10) “and there was under His feet as it were a brick-work of sapphire”, which is explained to mean that this (the brick-work) was before Him at the time of their bondage; “and there was as the essence of heaven” (i. e. joy and gladness) when they had been delivered (cf. Rashi on Exodus 24:10), thus the Divine Glory changed according to circumstances, — therefore He stated here: Since I change, appearing in various forms, do not say, “There are two divine Beings”; it is I Who brought you forth from Egypt and Who appeared to you at the Sea (cf. Mekhilta d'Rabbi Yishmael 20:2:2). Another explanation: because they then heard many voices, as it is said (v. 15) “the people heard the voices (הקלות)” — voices coming from the four cardinal points and from the heavens and from the earth — therefore God said to them, “Do not say there are many Deities”. — Why did God say in the singular אלהיך, “Thy God”, (as though speaking to one person alone)? To afford Moses an opportunity to speak in defence of Israel at the incident of the golden calf. This, is exactly what he did say, (Exodus 32:11) “Wherefore, O Lord, doth Thy wrath glow against Thy people”, for not to them didst Thou give the command, “There shall be to thee no other gods” but to me alone! (Exodus Rabbah 43:5)

1.3. Midrash

1.3.1. Bereishit Rabbah 1:10

1.3.1.1. Rabbi Yonah said in the name of Rabbi Levi: Why was the world created with a "bet"? Just as a bet is closed on all sides and open in the front, so you are not permitted to say, "What is beneath? What is above? What came before? What will come after?" Rather from the day the world was created and after. Bar Kappara said: "You have but to inquire about bygone ages that came before you [ever since G-d created humanity on earth]" (Deuteronomy 4:32). "Ever since G-d created them" you may speculate, however you may not speculate on what was before that. ["From one end of Heaven to the other"] on this you may speculate and investigate, but you may not speculate and investigate 0n what was before. Rabbi Yehudah ben Pazzi explained the Creation story according to Bar Kappara. Why was the world created with a "bet"? To teach you there are two worlds: this world and the world-to-come. D'var Acher: Why with a "bet"? Because it is the language of "blessing." And why not with an "aleph"? Because it is the language of "cursing."

1.4. Talmud

1.4.1. Sotah

1.4.1.1. Sotah 47a:10

1.4.1.1.1. The Gemara asks: What did Gehazi do that caused the masses to sin? There are those who say that he hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s calf, the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, and used a magnet to pull the calf off the ground so that he suspended it between heaven and earth, i.e., caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly. And there are those who say: He engraved the sacred name on its mouth, and it would say: “I am the Lord your God” and: “You shall not have other gods” (Exodus 20:2). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments against idol worship, causing people to worship it even more devoutly.

2. Torah

2.1. 20.4

2.1.1. You shall not make for yourself a sculptured image, or any likeness of what is in the heavens above, or on the earth below, or in the waters under the earth

2.2. Commentary

2.2.1. Sfrorno

2.2.1.1. לא תעשה לך פסל, even if you do not mean to use it as an object of worship.

2.3. Talmud

2.3.1. Sanhedrin 61b:45

2.3.1.1. (שמות כ, ד) לא תשתחוה להם להם אי אתה משתחוה אבל אתה משתחוה לאדם כמותך

2.4. Midrash

2.4.1. Mekhilta DeRabbi Shimon Bar Yochai 20:4

2.4.1.1. לא תעשה לך מלמד שכל העושה ע״ז לעצמו עובר משום שתים משום לא תעשה ומשום לך : פסל. אין לי אלא פסל כשהוא אומר כל תמונה. לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות: אשר בשמים. לרבות שמים עצמה: ממעל. לרבות מלאכי השרת: ואשר בארץ. לרבות הרים וגבעות נחשים ועקרבים: מתחת. לרבות את התהומות: ואשר במים. לרבות את חיות הים ואת הדולפנין : מתחת. לרבות את השלשולין : לארץ. לרבות ארץ עצמה: כשהוא אומר כל תמונה לא בדמותן ולא בדמות בבואה שלהן ולא חיות רעות ולא בדמות חיות שלמעלה: אם סופינו לרבות כולן מה ת"ל פסל אלא אם אתה עושה כן נמצאת פוסל עולם ממני והריני פוסל עולם ממך :

3. Torah

3.1. 20.9

3.1.1. Six days you shall labor and do all your work,

3.2. commentary

3.2.1. Rambam

3.2.1.1. ששת ימים תעבוד ועשית כל מלאכתך ענין עבודה היא מלאכה שאינה להנאת הגוף כאוכל נפש וכיוצא בה, כענין שנאמר ובכל עבודה בשדה (שמות א יד), כי תעבוד את האדמה (בראשית ד יב), ונעבדתם ונזרעתם (יחזקאל לו ט), וכאשר אפרש עוד בע''ה (ויקרא כג ז). ולכך אמר ששת ימים תעבוד את האדמה, ועשית כל מלאכתך, אשר היא לצורך גופך ולהנאתך, כענין את אשר תאפו אפו (לעיל טז כג), ובשבת לא תעשה שום מלאכה:

3.3. Talmud

3.3.1. Bava Kamma

3.3.1.1. Bava Kamma 54b:13

3.3.1.1.1. The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive concerning Shabbat itself that the words “ox” and “donkey” are referring to all types of animals? As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: In the first version of the Ten Commandments it is stated: “Your manservant, your maidservant, nor your cattle” (Exodus 20:10), whereas in the second version of the Ten Commandments it is stated: “Nor your ox, nor your donkey, nor any of your cattle” (Deuteronomy 5:14). Now, aren’t an ox and a donkey already included in the category of: All animals, which are included in the term “cattle”? Why, then, were they specified? To teach you that just as with regard to the terms ox and donkey that are stated here, undomesticated animals and birds have the same halakha as them, so too, everywhere that an ox and donkey are mentioned, all types of undomesticated animals and birds have the same halakha as them.

3.4. Midrash

3.4.1. Bereishit Rabbah 16:5

3.4.1.1. וַיִּקַּח ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם וגו' (בראשית ב, טו), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר עִלָּה אוֹתוֹ, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יד, ב): וּלְקָחוּם עַמִּים וֶהֱבִיאוּם וגו'. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר פִּתָּה אוֹתוֹ, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (הושע יד, ג): קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם דְּבָרִים וְשׁוּבוּ אֶל ה' וגו'. וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ, רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר הִנִּיחַ לוֹ וְהֵגֵן עָלָיו וְעִדְּנוֹ מִכָּל אִילָנֵי גַּן עֵדֶן. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר לְהַנִּיחוֹ וּלְהָגֵן עָלָיו וּלְעַדְּנוֹ מִכָּל אִילָנֵי גַּן עֵדֶן. וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ, נָתַן לוֹ מִצְוַת שַׁבָּת, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, יא): וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי. לְעָבְדָהּ, (שמות כ, ט): שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד. וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ, (דברים ה, יב): שָׁמוֹר אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ, אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ג, יב): תַּעַבְדוּן אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים, וּכְתִיב (במדבר כח, ב): תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ.

4. My Answer!

4.1. I personally think that the ten comandments are totally still relevant. There are a lot of religious people that still look at this text a lot and cherish it. Also, christians look at their own version of this text, and they also think of it as very holy. So although I , myself, don't look at the ten commandments everyday, there still some people that do and they think of it as a closer connection with God.