14th Amendment

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14th Amendment by Mind Map: 14th Amendment

1. Origins

1.1. Black codes

1.1.1. Southern legislators passed laws called the black codes

1.1.2. The African Americans rights were limited by the black codes

1.1.3. The rights of the enslaved people were similar to the black codes

1.1.4. Southern states limited the African Americans rights by the black codes

1.2. Dred Scott

1.2.1. Dred Scott was a slave owned by an army surgeon who traveled around the states

1.2.2. Dred Scott sued for his freedom upon his owners death

1.2.3. Dred Scott v. Sandford was decided

1.2.4. Since Dred Scott wasn't a citizen the S.C ruled he couldn't sue

2. Acts

2.1. Civil Rights Act (1957&1964)

2.1.1. This aimed to protect voting rights and allows the government to prosecute anyone who tried to prevent or limit voting rights of anyone

2.1.2. Even after the Civil Rights Act was implemented, minorities still were discriminated

2.1.3. This not only outlawed racial discrimination, but also on religion, sex, and national origin

2.2. Voting Rights Act (1965)

2.2.1. The civil right movement focused its attention on voting rights for African Americans

2.2.2. This outlawed the denial of voting rights based in race, including literacy test

2.2.3. The Southern states denied the rights to vote to blacks, only 3% of blacks were registered to vote

2.3. Indian Education Act (1972)

2.3.1. Until 1924 that congress passed a law recognizing Native Americans, they were never seen as citizens

2.3.2. This Act worked to improve education for Native Americans.

2.3.3. The act provided money and services to Native American schools

2.3.4. Successfully educating these children required recognizing that culture is an important part of identity

2.4. Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)

2.4.1. In 1990, Congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and President George H. W. Bush signed it into law. This law extends equal protection to people with physical or mental disabilities

2.4.2. This allows people to sue their employers for failing to work with their disabilities

2.4.3. The Court ruled that states do not have to pay damages to state workers who file lawsuits under the ADA. This ruling suggests that that there are limits to how the ADA can be applied

2.5. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997)

2.5.1. Court cases such as Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia (1972) ruled that states are responsible for educating children with disabilities

2.5.2. In 1975, Congress passed a law that would be called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to expand education opportunities for students with disabilities

3. Effects

3.1. Equal Pay

3.1.1. As woman obtained more freedom, more of them decided to enter the workforce. Still, they encountered discrimination in where jobs they could take and how much they were paid. In 1963, President Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963 into law.

3.1.2. The next year, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 included a section, called Title VII, which prohibited workplace discrimination

3.1.2.1. These changes had a dramatic impact on the role of women in the workforce. Since the 1970s, women have entered new jobs throughout the economy and new roles throughout society.

3.1.3. This act stated that men and women should receive equal pay for equal work: "No employer . . . shall discriminate . . . between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work. . .”

3.1.4. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/data-how-does-the-u-s-womens-soccer-team-pay-compare-to-the-men/

3.2. Equal Protection

3.2.1. The Fourteenth Amendment says that no state can create or enforce a law to “deny any person. . .equal protection of the laws.” This phrase is called the equal protection clause.

3.2.2. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which was based on the equal protection clause, paved the way for other groups to seek improved equal protection under the law.

3.2.3. The Fourteenth Amendment says that no state can create or enforce a law that denies “any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

3.2.4. Although the equal protection clause was written in response to discrimination against African Americans, other groups made it clear that others could also benefit from its protections

4. 13-15th Amendment

4.1. 13th Amendment

4.1.1. "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."

4.1.2. https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/13thamendment.html

4.2. 14th Amendment

4.2.1. "All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."

4.2.2. https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv

4.3. 15th Amendment

4.3.1. "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

4.3.2. https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/15thamendment.html

5. Court cases

5.1. Plessy v. Furgeson

5.1.1. He was arrested for sitting in the "white only" section

5.1.2. He argued it violated the 14th amendment

5.1.3. The S.C argued that it was okay as long as it was separate but equal

5.1.4. Segregation was legal until 1954

5.2. Brown v. Board of Education

5.2.1. "Segregation of . . . children in the public schools of a State solely on the basis of race . . . denies to [African American] children the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment—even though the physical facilities and other ‘tangible’ factors of white and [African American] schools may be equal. . . . The ‘separate but equal’ doctrine adopted in Plessy v. Ferguson . . . has no place in the field of public education"

5.2.2. Segregation in public schools was ruled unconstitutional by the S.C

5.2.3. Lawyers such as Thurgood Marshall from the NAACP helped achieve victories in the Brown v. Board of Education ruling