A DEFINITION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE:FROM THE TANGIBLE TO THE INTANGIBLE

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A DEFINITION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE:FROM THE TANGIBLE TO THE INTANGIBLE by Mind Map: A DEFINITION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE:FROM THE TANGIBLE TO THE INTANGIBLE

1. INTRODUCTION:THE SEMANTIC EVOLUTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN FRANCE

1.1. ACCORDING TO ANDRE DESVALLEES -FIVE PERIODS MUST BE DISTINGUISHED IN THE HISTORY OF THE TERM PATRIMOINE

1.1.1. CHARACTERISED BY EXPANSION AND SEMANTIC TRANSFERS- MONUMENT HERITAGE,CULTURAL PRO[ERTY

1.2. MODERN MEANING- PATRIMOINE WAS FIRST USED ON OCTOBER 4,1740

1.2.1. THE TERM MONUMENT WAS COMMONLY USED TO INDICATE TESTIMONIES OF THE PAST THAT WERE BOTH PRESERVING

1.3. LEGAL POINT OF VIEW(PATRIMOINE)

1.3.1. THIS NATIONALISATION PROCESS,WHICH WAS A SORT OF PUBLIC APPROPRIATION

1.4. SECOND PERIOD(1930-1945)

1.4.1. CONCEPT OF PATRIMOINE BECAME A COMPLETE PART OF THE CULTURAL DIMENSION

1.4.1.1. THE EXPRESSION OF ARTISTIC HERITAGE,USED FOR THE FIRST TIME BY EURIPIDE FOUNDOUKIDIS(1931)

1.4.2. GOODS INHERITED FROM THE FATHER OR MOTHER, INDICATING A CONCEPT OF PERSONAL HERITAGE, AFTER THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

1.5. FRENCH LANGUAGE USES THE TERM PETRIMOINE

1.5.1. "PROPERTY" AND "HERITAGE"-STRESSING THE INHERITANCE PROCESS

1.6. HERITAGE

1.6.1. VISION IS VERTICAL BUT LIMITED TO WHAT IS BEING TRANSMITTED

1.6.2. PATRIMOINE-VISION IS HORIZONTAL, ABLE TO ENCOMPASS

1.7. THIRD PASSAGE

1.7.1. ADOPTION OF THE EXPRESSION OF PATRIMOINE CULTUREL( CULTURAL HERITAGE BY ANDRE MALRAUX

1.7.1.1. IN THE DECREE 59-889 DATED JULY 24,1959

1.7.1.2. IF ONE TAKES INTO CONSIDERATION THE MEANING OF PATRIMOINE IN 19th CENTURY, THE CONCEPT HAS BEEN EXPANDED

2. THE HERITAGE OF DIRECTIVES,CHARTES AND INTERNATIONAL RESOLUTIONS

2.1. ATHENS CHARTER (1931)

2.1.1. CONSIDERATION THE CONSERVATION OF ARTISTIC AND ARCHEOLOGICAL HERITAGE WITHOUT DEFINING IT.

2.1.1.1. IN THE INTRODUCTION, A FIRST DEFINITION OF HERITAGE IS GIVEN

2.2. THE DEFINITION OF HISTORIC MONUMENT

2.2.1. APPLIES NOT ONLY TO GREAT WORKS OF ART BUT ALSO TO MORE MODEST WORK OF THE PAST WHICH HAVE ACQUIRED CULTURAL SIGNIFINANCE WITH THE PASSING OF TIME

2.2.2. VENICE CHARTER-ISSUES THAT WERE PROPOSED WERE TO BE AT THE OBJECT OF DISCUSSION FOR THE YEARS TO COME

2.3. BEGINNING OF 1950S FROM A TYPOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL POINT OR VIEW

2.3.1. AN EXPANSION OF THE BASIS CONCEPTS IN INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS REGARDING THE CONSERVATION OF HERITAGE

2.4. CONCEPT OF CULTURAL PROPERTY

2.4.1. AN EXPANSION OF THE BASIS CONCEPTS IN INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS REGARDING THE CONSERVATION OF HERITAGE

2.4.1.1. THE CONVENTION STATES THAT THAT IT IS NECESSARY TO PROTECT THE CULTURAL HERITAGE OF ALL HUMANITY

2.5. DOCUMENTS FOLLOWING THE VENICE CHARTER CONCENTRATE ON 2 DIFFERENT ISSUES

2.5.1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF NEW FIELDS OF CONSERVATION

2.5.1.1. THE CHARTER OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE IN 1972 WHICH PROPOSES THE SOIL AS HERITAGE,UNDERSTOOD AS A LIMITED AND FRAGILE RESOURCES

2.6. CHARTER FOR THE PROTECTION OF HISTORIC CITIES

2.6.1. THESE VALUES ARE REPRESENTED BY BOTH MATERIAL AND SPIRITUAL VALUES AND BY RELATIONSHIP THEY CREATE BETWEEN THE CITY AND ITS SURROUNDING

2.6.2. FOLLOWS A SIMILAR LINE,STATING THE NEED TO PROTECT HISTORIC CITIES

2.7. STARTING IN THE MID 1970S

2.7.1. INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS WERE DRAWN UP IN AN ATTEMPT TO DEFINE THE GENERAL CRITERIA

2.7.2. THIS TENDACY TO EXPAND THE TYPOLOGIES OF PROPERTY PROTECTED BY RESPECTING THEIR CULTURAL IDENTITY

3. FROM TANGIBLE TO INTANGIBLE HERITAGE

3.1. BURRA CHARTER(ICOMOS,1982)

3.1.1. PROPOSES TO PROTECT THE CONSERVATION OF THE CULTURAL SIGNIFANCE OF A SITE

3.1.2. DUE TO ITS AESTHETIC,HISTORIC, SCIENTIFIC OR SOCIAL VALUE

3.1.2.1. THIS SELECTION WAS UNDERTAKEN ON THE BASIS OF LIST,CAN NOW NO LONGER BE FOUNDED ON THE INTRINSIC QUALITY

3.2. NEW DEFINITION (NARA DOCUMENT,1994,DECLARATION OF SAN ANTONIO1996)

3.2.1. IT IS NO LONGER CLOSELY LINKED T0 THE PHYSICAL CONSISTENCY OF THE OBJECT IN A MORE RESTRICTED SENSE, AND OF HERITAGE IN A BROADER SENSE

3.3. NEXT STEP IS AWARENESS

3.3.1. CONSERVATION CAN NO LONGER BE BASED ON THE OBJECT'S INTRINSIC QUALITY

3.3.1.1. MUST BE FOUNDED ON OUR ABILITY TO RECOGNISE ITS AESTHETIC,HISTORIC,SCIENTIFIC, SOCIAL VALUES AND MANY MORE

3.4. KRAKOW CHARTER(2000)

3.4.1. A MONUMENT IS DEFINED AS A CLEARLY DETERMINED ENTITY, (THE BEARER OF VALUES)

3.4.1.1. REPRESENT A SUPPORT OF MEMORY

3.5. MATERIAL HERITAGE

3.5.1. LIMITED IMPORTANCE IN MANY CULTURES

3.5.1.1. IN AFRICAN,CULTURAL HERITAGE IT IS A MERE 20%

3.5.1.2. THE VODOUN TEMPLES IN AFRICA ARE REBUILT REGULARLY

3.5.1.3. ACCORDING TO THE SINOU, THEY ARE THE PERFECT EXAMPLEOF AN ANTIMONUMENT

3.6. CULTURES THAT MANIFEST LIFE

3.6.1. LITTLE CONSIDERATION FOR THEIR HERITAGE HAVE DEVELOPED THE ABILITYTO CONSERVE THEIR MATERIAL CULTURE

3.6.1.1. JAPANESE CULTURE IS NOT AT ALL INTERESTED IN THE MATERIAL OF THE MONUMENT,PREFERRING THE CULTURE OF KNOWLEDGE LINKED TO ITS CREATION

3.6.1.2. THIS APPROACH DEPENDS ON THE CYCLIC VISION OF HISTORY,WHICH ALLOWS A SORT OF REVERSIBILITY OF TIME

3.7. TOMASZEWSKI

3.7.1. TWO APPROACHES ARE NOT ONLY DERIVED FROM RELIGIOUS CONSIDERATION,THAT IS ALSO CULTURAL,BUT ALSO FROM CONCRETE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

3.7.1.1. WESTERN CONCEPTION IS APPLIED TO RESISTANT MATERIALS AND TEMPERATE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

3.8. 2001, UNESCO INCLUDED 19 NEW MASTERPIECE

3.8.1. CLASSIFIED AS CULTURAL GOODS ASSOCIATED WITH ORALITY OR THE IMMATERIAL DIMENSION, THUS RECOGNISING THE IMPORTANCE OF ORAL AND IMMATERIAL HERITAGE

3.9. IMMATERIAL

3.9.1. HAS DIFFICULTY IN BECOMING PART OF THE WESTERN CONCEPT OF HERITAGE, IS HOWEVER, THE NUCLEUS OF THE DEFINITION OF IDENTITY OF SOME SOCIETIES SUCH AS THAT OF JAPAN

3.9.1.1. FROM 1995 ON,THIS LEGISLATION MAKES A DISTINCTION BETWEEN IMMATERIAL CULTURAL GOODS AND ART OR ARTISAN PROFESSION

3.10. CREATED IN JAPAN 1955

3.10.1. RAPIDLY DIFFUSED IN OTHER COUNTRIES, THE SYSTEM OF LIVING HUMAN TREASURE UNESCO REGARDED IT AS AN INSTRUMENTS

3.10.1.1. EXTENSION OF THE CONVENTION OF WORLD HERITAGE TO THE IMMATERIAL IN 1994 IS TEH TANGIBLE SIGN

3.10.1.2. THE AFFIRMATION OF NEW TYPES OF HERITAGE HIGHLIGHTS HOW HERITAGE IS A CONCEPT THAT CANNOT BE DEFINED BEFOREHAND

4. CONCLUSION

4.1. THE CONCEPT OF HERITAGE HAS BEEN CHARACTERISED BY A THREE FOLD PROCESSOF EXTENSION

4.1.1. A TYPOLOGICAL-THEMATIC EXTENSION SINCE OBJECTS THAT WERE NOT PART OF THE TRADITIONAL,CHRONOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL CONCEPT OF HERITAGE

4.1.1.1. THE MONUMENT IS NO LONGER CONSIDERED ALONE BUT ALSO IN ITS CONTEXT

4.2. PARALLEL TO THIS EXTENSION PROCESS

4.2.1. SELECTION CRITERIA OF CULTURAL HERITAGE HAVE ALSO CHANGED,WHILE INITIALLY THE HISTORIC AND ARTISTIC VALUES WERE ONLY PARAMETERS

4.2.2. THE CULTURAL VALUE,ITS VALUEOF IDENTITY AND THE CAPACITY OF THE OBJECT TO INTERACT WITH MEMORY

4.3. PURELY NORMATIVE APPROACH

4.3.1. RECOGNITION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE OF AN OBJECT DEPENDED ON ITS BEING INCLUDED ON A LIST

4.3.1.1. HERITAGE IS NO LONGER DEFINED ON THE BASIS OF ITS MATERIAL ASPECT

4.4. DEVELOPMENT HAS ALSO MADE IT POSSIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE

4.4.1. WHICH WAS IGNORED FOR ALONG TIME

4.4.2. THIS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE IMPORTANCE OF IMMATERIALITY AND ORALITY CAN BE INTERPRETED AS A STEP IN THE DIRECTION

4.4.2.1. OVERCOMING A EURONCENTRIC PERSPECTIVE OF HERITAGE

4.4.2.2. ACCEPTING CULTURAL DIVERSITY AS A SOURCE OF ENRICHMENT FOR THE WHOLE OF MANKIND