Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Pragmatism: Working from the known to the unknown. called expanding environments.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. Education for women and African Americans is the movement that had the biggest influence on education. People thought that women should not have any rights, which in my opinion is absurd. Women and it should not matter what skin color you are should have the right to have a decent education. By the nineteenth century women was admitted into elementary, but most were admitted into private academies. In my opinion is great because they should have the right todo anything a man should do. Women started to actually have an education, but the African Americans were not given the chance to because of the Civil War. After the end of the Civil War the African Americans still struggled to get an education because of racism, which to me is just still ridiculous. Every man and woman should have an equal amount of education.

2.2. Historical Interpretation

2.2.1. The Radical-Revisionist School began in the 1960's. The democratic-liberal historians were being challenged by radical historians, sociologists , and political economists of education. There were a few men by the names of Katz, Spring, and Karier that argued that the history of the U.S. education is the story of expanded success for very different reasons and with very different results. Radical historians do not deny with them rather they believe it expanded to meet the needs of the elites in society for the control of the working class and immigrants, and for economic efficiency and productivity. They point out that each period of educational reform led to the increasing stratification within the educational system, with working-class, poor, and minority students getting the short end of the stick. Educational expansion suggest that this process has benefited the elites more than the masses and has not produced either equality of opportunity or results.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Relationship between School and Society

3.1.1. Functionalism is the relationship between the parts of society; also saying how the aspects of society are adaptable.

3.1.2. The Conflict Theory is how the elite or powerful control the poor and weak. It is the competition of scarce resources.

3.1.3. The Interactional Theory is the use of symbols and face to face contact.

3.2. Three Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. 1.) Inside the schools is an effect. Curriculum expresses culture. Curricula are not value free; They are expressions of certain groups, ideas, beliefs, and prejudices. All students do not study the same curriculum. There is a lot of differences among white, African-American, Hispanic-American, and Asian-American high school students with regard to track placement.

3.2.2. 2.) Teacher behavior is also an effect.Teachers are models for their students and, as instructional leaders, teachers set standards for students and influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy.

3.2.3. 3.) Gender is also an effect. Men are frequently paid more than women for the same job, which does not make sense to me. Most teachers are female and the administrators are male. I did not even think to even think of this and it is amazing because it is so true.

4. Politics of Education

4.1. Perspective

4.2. Vision

4.3. Ch. 2 Four purposes of education.

4.3.1. Intelectual Purpose

4.3.1.1. They are to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing , and Math; and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis evaluation, and synthesis.

4.3.2. Political Purpose

4.3.2.1. They are to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order; to prepare citizens who will participate in the political order; to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order' and to teach children the basic laws of the society.

4.3.3. Economic Purposes

4.3.3.1. They are to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor the degrees to watch schools directly prepare students for work varies from society , but most schools have at least indirect role in this process.

4.3.4. Social Purposes

4.3.4.1. They are to help solve social problems to work as one of many institutions such as the family and the church to ensure social cohesion, and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors and values of any society.

4.4. Ch. 2

4.4.1. 1. Role of school

4.4.1.1. Maintains the status quo and its potential quo and its potential to bring about change, is at the heart differing conceptions of education and schooling.

4.4.2. 2. explanations of unequal performance

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Governance

5.1.1. Senators

5.1.1.1. Jeff Sessions

5.1.1.2. Richard Shelby

5.1.2. House of Representatives

5.1.2.1. Mac McCutcheon

5.1.2.2. Micky Hammon

5.1.2.3. Craig Ford

5.1.3. State Superintendent

5.1.3.1. Michael Sentance

5.1.4. State School Board Representative

5.1.4.1. Robert Bentley

5.1.4.2. Michael Sentance

5.1.4.3. Jeffrey Newman

5.1.4.4. Yvette Richardson, Ed.D.

5.1.4.5. Matthew S. Brown, J.D.

5.1.4.6. Betty Peters

5.1.4.7. Stephanie Bell

5.1.4.8. Ella B. Bell

5.1.4.9. Cynthia Sanders McCarty, Ph.D.

5.1.4.10. Mary Scott Hunter

5.1.5. Local Superintendent

5.1.5.1. Michael Douglas (Oneonta City Schools)

5.1.6. Local School Board for Oneonta City Schools

5.1.6.1. Mr. Patrick Adams

5.1.6.2. Mr. Stephen Anderton

5.1.6.3. Mr. Ricky Hicks

5.1.6.4. Mr. Donald Maples

5.1.6.5. Mr. Tracy Shea

5.2. Comparison to One Country

5.2.1. Conflict is a necessary part of change. Efforts to democratize schools do not create conflicts, but they allow previously hidden problems, issues, and disagreements to surface. Staff involvement in school restructuring must be prepared ot elivit, manage, and resolve conflicts.

5.2.2. New Behaviors must be learned. Because change requires new relationships and behaviors, the change process must include building communication and trust, enabling leadership and initiative to emerge, and learning techniques of communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution.

5.2.3. Team building must extend to the entire school. Shared decision making must consciously work out and give on-going attention to relationships within the rest of the school's staff. Otherwise, issues of exclusiveness and imagined elitism may surface, and perceived"resistance to change" will persist

5.2.4. Process and content and interrelated. The process a team uses in going about its work is as important as the content of educational changes it attempts. Te substance of a project often depends upon the degree of trust and openness built up within the team and between the team and the school. At the same time, the usfulness and the visibility of the project will infuence future commitments from and the relationships among the staff and others involved.

6. Philosophy of Education

6.1. Generic Notions

6.1.1. Pragmatism: This is generally viewed as an American philosophy that developed in the latter part of the nineteenth century.

6.1.2. Existentialism: Believe that individuals are placed on this earth aloe and must make some sense out of the chaos encountered

6.2. Key Researchers

6.2.1. Pragmatism: George Sanders Pierce, William James, John Dewey

6.2.2. Existentialism: Soren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Sartre, Maxine Greene.

6.3. Goal of Education

6.3.1. Pragmatism: It is the philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve heir desired ends.

6.3.2. Existentialism: Education should be focused on the needs of people, both cognitively and affectively.

6.4. Role of the Teacher

6.4.1. Pragmatism: No longer the authoritarian figure form which knowledge flows; teachers assumes the peripheral of facilitator.

6.4.2. Existentialism: Teachers should understand their own"lived worlds" as well as that of their students in order to help their students achieve the best "lived worlds" . Must take risks.

6.5. Curriculum

6.5.1. Existentialism: Humanities , Literature, like art, drama and music.

6.6. Method of Instruction

6.6.1. Pragmatism: It goes from the problem to the speculative thought to the action to the results.

6.6.2. Existentialism: To help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together.

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Historical Curriculum Theory

7.1.1. The humanist curriculum reflects the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educated citizenry and that the purpose of education is to present to students the best of what has been thought and written.

7.2. Sociological Curriculum Theory

7.2.1. The hidden curriculum includes what is taught to students through implicit rules and messages as well as through what is left out of the formal curriculum. Students receive a message that these things are just not important, which ultimately is a powerful force in shaping human consciousness.

7.2.2. The sociology of curriculum concentrates on the function of what is taught in schools and its relationship to the role of schools within society. Functional believe the role of the schools is to intergrate children into the existing social order.

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. School-based reforms

8.1.1. The class: Different students get different kinds of education. School is very expensive. The more kids that are in the upper class attend school because they have the money to afford great education. Most of the middle class are able to get a decent education, but the class that is in the poorer side of things do not always get the opportunity like the others classes do.

8.1.2. Race has always been a problem in the country and seems to always be. It is not fair to the race that is getting discriminated against. Being discriminated makes there education not as good as the others. The kids who get miss treated are not able to get the right education they deserve and that is wrong.It should never matter what race you are, everyone should get the same education opportunity.

8.1.3. There are some schools in the states that either if you are male or female you get discriminated against. It should not matter whether you are male or female to get a certain kind of education.

8.2. Response to the Coleman Study

8.2.1. The first response to the Coleman Study of 1982 was the differences that do exist between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant, but in terms of significant differences in learning, the results are negligible.

8.2.2. The Second response is where an individual goes to school is often related to her race and socioeconomic background, but the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class.

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

9.1.1. Functionalists believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family background. They also expect that the schooling process will produce unequal results, but these results ought to be based on individual differences between students, not on group differences.

9.1.2. Conflict Theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality. The conflict theorist are concerned with both equality of opportunity and results.

9.2. Inequality

9.2.1. The first inequality is classes. People judge other about how much money he or she has and that is not fair. People should accept everyone and help the person is who down.

9.2.2. The second is race. It is never fair to judge someone because there skin is different. It is really wrong and should be stopped. There should be no teacher that should judge a student. It is not fair at all to the student. The students should always get the same education opportunity as the rest of the kids.

10. Educational Reform

10.1. School-based reforms

10.1.1. School-Business Partnerships: They have attracted considerable media attention, but there is little convincing evidence that they have significantly improved schools or that , as as means of reform, school-business partnerships will address the fundamental problems facing U.S. history.

10.1.2. School-to-Work Programs: They decide that they want to bring school and work together, because it will get them ready for the future better. In stead of using basic teaching they use whatever job they want to do and study that.

10.2. Societal, community, economic, or political reforms

10.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools: This is where the teaching of the child is not the full attention. It is bringing the community into the teaching. This is to target at-risk communities to make them better.

10.2.2. School Finance Reforms: Court decided that it is not constitutional that that students get equal education in the 1970's, but now in the 2000's is has to be done this way. It is the only way it is fair to the students.