Operating System(OS) Structure

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Operating System(OS) Structure by Mind Map: Operating System(OS) Structure

1. Operating System Service

1.1. User interface

1.1.1. Almost all operating systems have a user interface (UI)

1.2. Program execution

1.2.1. Since user programs cannot execute I/O operations directly, the OS must provide some means to perform I/O.

1.3. I/O operation

1.3.1. Since user programs cannot execute I/O operations directly, the OS must provide some means to perform I/O.

1.4. File-system manipulation

1.4.1. For user to read, write, create, delete, search, list file information and permission management

1.5. Communications

1.5.1. Exchange information on the same or between computers over a network

1.6. Error detecting

1.6.1. Ensure correct computing by detecting errors in the CPU and memory hardware, in I/O devices, or in user programs.

2. System Calls

2.1. Provide interface between a running program and OS

2.2. 3 general methods

2.2.1. Parameters placed, or pushed, onto the stack by the program and popped off the stack by the operating system

2.2.2. Parameters passed in registers

2.3. Types of system calls

2.3.1. Process control

2.3.2. Device management

2.3.3. File management

2.3.4. Information maintenance

2.3.5. Protection

2.3.6. Communication

3. Additional OS System Function

3.1. Resource allocation

3.1.1. allocating resources to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time.

3.2. Accounting

3.2.1. keep track of record and computer resources for account billing or accumulating usage statistics

3.3. Protection & security

3.3.1. Information owners stored in a multiuser or networked computer system may want to control use of that information, concurrent processes should not interfere with each other.

4. Layered Approach

4.1. The OS divided into a number of layers

4.1.1. Bottom(layer 0) is hardware

4.1.2. Highest(layer N)

4.2. Advantages

4.2.1. Simplicity of construction and debugging

4.3. Disadvantages

4.3.1. The careful definition and interaction of the layers

4.3.2. Less efficient

5. Microkernel

5.1. Benefits of Microkerel

5.1.1. Many services traditionally included in the operating system are now external subsystems Device drivers File systems Virtual memory manager windowing sysetem security services

5.1.2. Extensibility Allows the addition of new services

5.1.3. Flexibility New features added Existing features can be subtracted

5.1.4. Portability Changes needed to port the system to a new processor is changed in the microkernel - not in the other services

5.1.5. Reliability Modular design Small microkernel can be rigorously tested

6. Operating System Design

6.1. Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful.

6.2. Start by defining goals and specifications

6.3. The design of the system will be affected by the choice of hardware and the type of system: batch, time shared, single user, multiuser, distributed, real time or general purpose.

6.4. User goals

6.4.1. OS should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe and fast

6.5. System goals

6.5.1. OS should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient.