My Foundations Of Education

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My Foundations Of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations Of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. The Conservative Perspective

1.1.1. Traditionalist Views

1.1.1.1. The Role of The School

1.1.1.1.1. Provide opportunities to all and ensure the best students who do the most work succeed (p. 27)

1.1.1.1.2. Socialization of children into society (27)

1.1.1.1.3. Transmittance of social codes and order through curriculum (27)

1.1.1.2. Explanation of Unequal Performance

1.1.1.2.1. Unequal performance stems from individual abilities and efforts (28)

1.1.1.2.2. Success and failure are the products of students' personal skills and initiatives (28)

1.1.1.3. Definition of Educational Problems

1.1.1.3.1. Decline of Standards

1.1.1.3.2. Decline of Cultural Literacy

1.1.1.3.3. Decline of Values/Civilization

1.1.1.3.4. Decline of Authority

1.2. The Liberal Perspective

1.2.1. Progressivist Views

1.2.1.1. The Role of The School

1.2.1.1.1. John Dewey: Philosopher/ Influenced supporters of liberal education with theories on progressivism and pragmatism

1.2.1.1.2. <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/P1mTImTMgq8" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

1.2.1.1.3. Provide educational opportunities to all to ensure all have equal opportunities to succeed (27)

1.2.1.2. Explanations of Unequal Performance

1.2.1.2.1. Unequal performance stems from disadvantaged life experiences and opportunities (28)

1.2.1.2.2. Schools must do what they can to allow disadvantaged students to have the same success as advantaged students (28)

1.2.1.3. Definition of Educational Problems

1.2.1.3.1. Schools limit the chances of poor and minority children causing a problem of underachievement in these groups (29)

1.2.1.3.2. Schools emphasize discipline and authority which prevents them from helping students develop as individuals (29)

1.2.1.3.3. The differences in urban and suburban schools is the central issue with inequalities of results (29)

1.2.1.3.4. Traditional curriculum is not inclusive of the cultures of our society (29)

1.3. The Radical Perspective

1.3.1. Unlike the liberal, views the equality of opportunity as an illusion (28)

1.3.2. Schools should work to eliminate inequality, but believe that schools reproduce inequality (28)

1.3.3. Asserts that the educational system has failed less advantaged groups with its policies, promoted conformity, leaves out the cultures, histories, and voices of the oppressed, and in general promotes inequality (30)

1.4. Neo-Liberal Views

1.4.1. Critiques the liberal view of equality claiming that liberal's search for equality has compromised the quality of public schools (32)

1.4.2. Strongly supports school choice through charters and vouchers (32)

1.5. Purposes of Education

1.5.1. Intellectual purpose

1.5.1.1. Teach cognitive skills (reading, writing, mathematics), specific knowledge (in literature, history, the sciences, etc.), and help students develop analysis, evaluation, and synthesis skills (22)

1.5.2. Political Purpose

1.5.2.1. Encourage patriotism, prepare citizens to participate in political order, assimilate diverse cultural groups into common political order, and teach basic laws of society (22)

1.5.3. Social Purpose

1.5.3.1. Help solve social problems, work as a member of institutions, ensure social cohesion, and socialization (22)

1.5.4. Economic Purpose

1.5.4.1. Prepare students for occupational roles (22)

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Educational Reform Movements

2.1.1. Rise of Common School

2.1.1.1. 1820-1860 (p.67)

2.1.1.2. Attorney Horace Mann: Leader of educational reform who lobbied for a state board of education and became its first secretary (67)

2.1.1.2.1. Due to efforts by Mann, the first state teacher training school was created in 1839 (67)

2.1.1.3. Reform founded on the belief that free public education would "change the social order and that education can foster social mobility" (68)

2.1.1.4. Influences of this reform linger in the continuation and growth of free public education, teacher training, and the state board of education.

2.1.2. Progressive Movement

2.1.2.1. Progressive Education Reform: 1900-1914 (70)

2.1.2.1.1. John Dewey: Influencer of progressive education who pushed for the creation of a curriculum that took into consideration the needs and interests of each child while allowing them to actively learn in a way that suited them best (71)

2.1.2.2. Child-Centered Reform

2.1.2.2.1. G. Stanley Hall- Influencer who believed that the development of children reflects the development of civilization (71)

2.1.2.3. Social- Engineering Reform

2.1.2.3.1. Edward L. Thorndike- Influencer who believed that human nature could be altered both positively and negatively "depending on the education to which it was subjected" (71)

2.1.2.3.2. Franklin Bobbitt- Leading proponent who believed that curriculum should be designed to "include the full range of human experience and prepare students for life" (72)

2.1.3. Educational Reaction and Subsequent Reforms

2.1.3.1. Educational Reaction

2.1.3.1.1. 1983- National Commission on Excellence (founded by Tarrel Bell) issues "A Nation At Risk" which provided evidence of a nation-wide decline in educational effectiveness (81)

2.1.3.2. Goals 2000

2.1.3.2.1. 1994- President Bill Clinton

2.1.3.3. No Child Left Behind

2.1.3.3.1. 2001- President George W. Bush

2.1.3.4. Race to the Top

2.1.3.4.1. 2009- President Barack Obama

2.1.3.5. School Choice Movement

2.1.3.5.1. Parents choose the public school that their children attend

2.2. Historical Interpretations of U.S. Education

2.2.1. The Democratic- Liberal School

2.2.1.1. "The history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution... of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all" (83)

2.2.1.1.1. Suggests that "each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities... and reject the conservative view of schools" (83)

2.2.1.2. Optimistic

2.2.2. The Radical- Revisionist School

2.2.2.1. Suggest that the U.S. educational system "expanded to meet the needs of the elites in society for the control of the working class and immigrants, and for economic efficiency and productivity" (84)

2.2.2.1.1. Suggest that "each period of educational reform led to increasing stratification with in the educational system" (84)

2.2.2.2. Critical/ Pessimistic

2.2.3. Conservative Perspectives

2.2.3.1. Argues that "U.S. students knew very little and that U.S. schools were mediocre" (85)

2.2.3.2. Points "to the failure of... progressive education to fulfill its lofty social goals without sacrificing academic quality" (85)

2.2.3.2.1. Believe that "the historical pursuit of social and political objectives [within schools] resulted in significant harm to the traditional academic goals of schooling" (85)

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Functional Theories

3.1.1.1. Picture of society- stresses interdependence of school, society, and all social systems (p. 117)

3.1.1.2. "Views society as a kind of machine" (117)

3.1.1.3. Emile Durkheim: Influencer of present-day functionalism who believed that "education... was of critical importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony" (118)

3.1.1.4. Assumes that consensus is the normal state of society and conflict represents a breakdown of shared values (118)

3.1.1.5. Believes that educational reform is supposed to "create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity" (118)

3.1.2. Conflict Theory

3.1.2.1. Picture of society- social order is based on "the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation" (118)

3.1.2.1.1. "The glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power" (118)

3.1.2.2. Do not see the relation between school and society as unproblematic or straightforward (118)

3.1.2.3. Karl Marx: Intellectual founder of conflict theory whose followers believe that there is a direct correspondence between the organization of schools and the organization of society

3.1.2.4. Max Weber: Conflict sociologist whose followers "analyze school organizations and processes from the point of view of status competition and organizational constraints" (119)

3.1.2.5. Believe that "schools pass on to graduates specific social identities that either enhance or hinder their life chances" (120)

3.1.3. Interactional Theories

3.1.3.1. Primarily critiques and extends the functional and conflict perspectives (120)

3.1.3.2. Studies the everyday "taken-for-granted" behaviors and interactions between students and students, and students and teachers (120)

3.1.3.3. Basil Bernstein: argued that the structural and interactional aspects of the educational system must be viewed "wholistically" (120)

3.2. Effects of Schooling On Individuals

3.2.1. Employment

3.2.1.1. Higher levels of formal education will lead to greater employment opportunities (121)

3.2.1.1.1. Credential inflation has led employers to expect potential employees to have more education (122)

3.2.1.1.2. Schools serve as "gate-keepers" to choose who will receive the highest-paying jobs instead of preparing graduates with the skills they will need (122)

3.2.2. Teacher Behavior

3.2.2.1. Often conflicted by "role strain" which teachers feel in an effort to fill their many roles, but results in teachers not feeling comfortable in any role (124)

3.2.2.2. Teachers are role-models for students and set standards for students, as well as "influence student self-esteem and self efficiency" (124)

3.2.2.3. Teacher expectations and labels play a significant role in student success (124)

3.2.3. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

3.2.3.1. "Play an important role in shaping students' educational experiences" (125)

3.2.3.2. Schools "socialize and sort and select students and, in doing so, reproduce society" (125)

3.2.4. Tracking

3.2.4.1. "Placement of students in curricular programs based on students' abilities and inclinations" (127)

3.2.4.1.1. Students' class or race are often deciding factors (127)

3.2.4.1.2. Students are often assumed to follow the path of their parents, and are often matched within the class of their upbringing (127)

3.2.4.2. The best tracks often receive the best teachers, while "lower tracks experience more alienation and authoritarian teachers" (127)

3.2.5. De Facto Segregation

3.2.5.1. Minority children in segregated schools are less likely to graduate from high school and college and are more likely to be arrested, live in segregated neighborhoods, and have a child before the age of 18 than minority children in integrated schools (127)

3.2.5.2. Caused by the fact that most people live in racially segregated neighborhoods whether by choice or by socioeconomic outcome (127)

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Child-Centered

4.1.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1.1.1. Proposes that educators start with the needs and interests of the child, allow the child to participate in planning curriculum, and use group and experiential learning (p. 188)

4.1.1.1.2. Believes "children are active, organic beings, growing and changing, and thus require a course of study that [will] reflect their particular stages of development" (188)

4.1.1.1.3. Believes in freedom and responsibility for students, and that the school should reflect the community (188)

4.1.1.2. Key Researchers

4.1.1.2.1. Francis Bacon: English philosopher and scientist who believed in a more experiential approach to the world (186)

4.1.1.2.2. John Locke: political philosopher who believed that people obtain knowledge through their senses and emphasized experience in learning (186)

4.1.1.2.3. John Dewey: British naturalist who believed in instrumentalism (a pragmatic relationship between school and society) and experimentalism (the application of ideas to educational practice on an experimental basis) (187)

4.1.1.3. Goal of Education

4.1.1.3.1. Dewey saw schools as "a place where ideas could be implemented, challenged, and restructured with the goal of providing students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order" (188)

4.1.1.3.2. To integrate students into a democratic society (188)

4.1.1.3.3. Growth (189)

4.1.1.4. Role of the Teacher

4.1.1.4.1. "No longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows; rather, the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator" (189)

4.1.1.4.2. Teacher "encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study" (189)

4.1.1.4.3. Teacher "writes curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum" (189)

4.1.1.5. Method of Instruction

4.1.1.5.1. "Dewey proposed that children learn both individually and in groups" (189)

4.1.1.5.2. Problem-solving and inquiry method used by students (189)

4.1.1.5.3. Formal instruction being discarded, children are free to learn in natural ways, using individualized study, problem solving, and the project method (189)

4.1.1.6. Curriculum

4.1.1.6.1. Follows Dewey's notion of "core curriculum" or "integrated curriculum" (189)

4.1.1.6.2. Expanding environments is used to start students with contemporary problems and work from the known to the unknown (189)

4.1.1.6.3. "Curriculum changes as the social order changes and as children's interests and needs change" (189)

5. Schools As Organizations

5.1. School Processes and School Cultures

5.1.1. Elements of Change

5.1.1.1. Equilibrium

5.1.1.1.1. Authority structures and expended political energy keep the school in a state of equilibrium (230)

5.1.1.2. Effecting Change Is Difficult

5.1.1.2.1. "Teachers often have pedagogic goals that are difficult to reconcile with the social goals of the students" (231)

5.1.1.2.2. "Administrators often have organizational goals that are shared neither by the teachers nor by the students" (231)

5.1.1.2.3. "Communities can exert tremendous pressure on schools and thus aggravate tensions within schools" (231)

5.1.1.3. Requirements of Change

5.1.1.3.1. Conflict is necessary (232)

5.1.1.3.2. New behaviors must be learned (232)

5.1.1.3.3. Team building must extend to the entire school (232)

5.1.1.3.4. Process and content are interrelated (232)

5.2. Athens City Schools Stakeholders

5.2.1. Alabama State Senators

5.2.1.1. Richard Shelby (R)

5.2.1.2. Luther Strange (R)

5.2.2. House of Representatives

5.2.2.1. Mo Brooks (R)-District 5 Representative

5.2.3. Alabama State Superintendent

5.2.3.1. Michael Sentance

5.2.4. Athens City Schools Superintendent

5.2.4.1. Dr. W. L. Holladay III

5.2.5. Athens City School Board

5.2.5.1. Russell Johnson- Chair

5.2.5.2. Beverly Malone- Vice President

5.2.5.3. Jennifer Manville- Member

5.2.5.4. Tim Green- Member

5.2.5.5. James Lucas- Member

5.2.5.6. Dr. Chris Paysinger- Member

5.2.5.7. Scott Henry- Member

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Curriculum Philosophies

6.1.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1.1. "Related to the needs and interests of the student rather than... society" (284)

6.1.1.2. Influencers

6.1.1.2.1. Jean Piaget

6.1.1.2.2. John Dewey

6.1.1.3. Student-centered philosophy- focuses on "relating the curriculum to the needs and interests of each child at a particular developmental stage" (284)

6.1.1.4. Relates schooling to life experiences

6.1.1.5. Teacher acts as facilitator of knowledge

6.1.1.6. "Not very influential in the US public schools... [but] profoundly influential in teacher education programs, as well as an important model in independent and alternative schools" (284)

6.2. Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimic (Conservative)

6.2.1.1. The Purpose of Education- To transmit specific knowledge to students (296)

6.2.1.2. Method- Didactic Method: relies on the lecture or presentation as the main form of communication (297)

6.2.1.3. Foundation- A relationship between teacher and learner where knowledge is transmitted (297)

6.2.2. Transformative (Progressive)

6.2.2.1. The Purpose of Education- To change the student in a meaningful way (297)

6.2.2.2. Method- Dialectical; Multi-dimensional; Student is an integral part of the learning process (297)

6.2.2.3. Foundation- Teaching and learning are inextricably linked; active participation leads to growth (297)

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Impact on Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. Financial Support

7.1.1.1.1. Education is expensive, and the longer a student stays in school, the more expensive it gets (342)

7.1.1.1.2. Education favors wealthier families (342)

7.1.1.2. Expectations for Educational Level

7.1.1.2.1. Upper and middle class families are more likely to expect their child to finish school and attend college (342)

7.1.1.2.2. Lower and working class families often have lower expectations for their children and often assume they will enter the workforce (342)

7.1.1.3. "Standard" English

7.1.1.3.1. Upper and middle class families are more likely to have books in the home (342)

7.1.1.4. Peer Groups

7.1.1.4.1. Schools with more middle class than lower class students tend to place more emphasis on high academic achievement (342)

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. Statistics show that minority students show lower levels of proficiency in literacy (343)

7.1.2.2. Statistics show that minority students are more likely to drop out of school (343)

7.1.2.3. One Explanation- "Minority students do not receive the same educational opportunities as white students, and their rewards for educational attainment are significantly less" (343)

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. Females

7.1.3.1.1. Less likely to drop out of school than males (343)

7.1.3.1.2. Higher proficiency for reading and writing than males (343)

7.1.3.1.3. Proficiency in mathematics often affected by the assumptions of teachers that females will not excel in the subject (343)

7.1.3.2. Males

7.1.3.2.1. Higher proficiency for mathematics than females (343)

7.1.3.2.2. Generally higher SAT scores than females (343)

7.2. The Coleman Study (1982)

7.2.1. Overview

7.2.1.1. The Coleman study compared the average test scores of public school students to those of private school students

7.2.1.1.1. The results showed that "there was not one subject in which public school students scored higher than private school students" (368)

7.2.1.1.2. Coleman and his colleagues argued that private schools demand more from their students; therefore, their students deliver more (368)

7.2.2. Responses

7.2.2.1. Jencks

7.2.2.1.1. A study by Jencks (1985) calculated the yearly achievement gains by public schools and Catholic schools, from which he learned the gap between them (368)

7.2.2.2. Borman and Dowling

7.2.2.2.1. A 2010 study by Borman and Dowling was conducted with modern statistical tools in the same manner of Coleman's original study (369)

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Student-Centered Explanations

8.1.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.1.1.1. Definition

8.1.1.1.1. Cultural deprivation theory "suggests that working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage" (423)

8.1.1.2. Skills and Dispositions

8.1.1.2.1. Asserts that middle-class culture values hard work, delayed gratification, and education as a means to success (423)

8.1.1.2.2. Asserts that working-class and nonwhite families who are in poverty value immediate reward, reject hard work as a means to success, and do not view schooling as necessary (423)

8.1.1.3. The Role of The School To Intervene

8.1.1.3.1. Asserts that because of deprivation, schools must "make up for lost time" (423)

8.1.1.3.2. Head Start- A program created to provide the necessary foundation for learning for educationally and economically disadvantaged students; attempts to involve and educate parents so they can help their children succeed (423)

8.2. School-Centered Explanations

8.2.1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. There is an obvious gap between the achievement levels of students in affluent school districts and those of students in poor school districts (428)

8.2.1.1.1. The majority of public school funding comes from state and local taxes, with local property taxes being a significant source (428)

8.2.2. Between-School Differences

8.2.2.1. Higher Socioeconomic District Schools

8.2.2.1.1. More likely to have student-centered pedagogic practices (433)

8.2.2.1.2. More likely to have humanistic liberal arts college preparatory programs (433)

8.2.2.1.3. Has access to smaller class sizes, "the latest in technological and curricular innovations," and support services (434)

8.2.2.2. Lower Socioeconomic District Schools

8.2.2.2.1. More likely to have authoritarian and teacher-directed pedagogic practices (433)

8.2.2.2.2. More likely to attend a school that is overcrowded, behind on technological and curricular innovations, and has few to no support services (434)

8.2.3. Within-School Differences

8.2.3.1. Ability Grouping

8.2.3.1.1. Elementary Level- students are placed in reading groups or classes "based on teacher recommendations, standardized test scores, or ascriptive characteristics" (434)

8.2.3.1.2. Secondary Level- divided by ability and curriculum; often results in different groups of students receiving very different educations in the same school (435)

8.2.4. Gender and Schooling

8.2.4.1. Some argue that the educational system is more geared toward the way men learn than the way women learn (437)

8.2.4.2. Some argue that curriculum materials portray gender roles in traditional and stereotypical ways (438)

8.2.4.3. Many significant aspects of women's history and women's lives are omitted from curriculum (438)

8.2.4.4. Hidden curriculum supports traditional gender roles (438)

8.2.4.4.1. Males dominate classroom discussion and receive more attention from teachers (438)

8.2.4.4.2. Teachers are more likely to assist males with a task but actually complete the task for females (438)

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-Based Reform

9.1.1. School-Business Partnerships

9.1.1.1. Started due to concern that schools were not producing students with the ability to revitalize the US economy (526)

9.1.1.2. Businesses fund many programs such as charter schools, voucher initiatives, and school reforms (526)

9.1.1.3. There is little evidence that school-business partnerships significantly improve schools or address fundamental problems (526)

9.1.2. Privitization

9.1.2.1. Private companies became more involved in the public school sector (526)

9.1.2.1.1. This involvement includes funding and management (527)

9.2. Community Reform

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools

9.2.1.1. Based on the philosophy that educating the community will impact the education of the students in that community (539)

9.2.1.2. Full Service schools "focus on meeting students' and their families' educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a coordinated and collaborative fashion between school and community services" (539)

9.2.1.2.1. Schools serve as community centers with extended hours and a multitude of services (539)

9.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone

9.2.2.1. Goal: To simultaneously change African-American students and their neighborhoods (539)

9.2.2.2. Programs include "Baby College" where parents-to-be are educated on how to care for, raise, and educate their children.

9.2.2.3. The hope is to create an atmosphere of growth, education, and development that "just seeps into your pores" (540)