What to keep in mind when Designing Instructional Materials

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What to keep in mind when Designing Instructional Materials by Mind Map: What to keep in mind when Designing Instructional Materials

1. Main theories

1.1. Behaviorism

1.1.1. Learning occurs as an interaction between the individual and the stimulus on the environment. The learner acquires new behaviors by responding to the stimuli in the environment. Acquisition of behaviors are acquired through reinforcing consequences, and repetition enables the learner to quickly respond.

1.2. Cognitive

1.2.1. Cognitivism explains human behavior by understanding the thought processes. The assumption is that humans are logical beings. The learner is an active participant seeking meaning. Memory has a major role. Information is selected for further processing.

1.3. Contructstivism

1.3.1. Constructivism suggest that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas. The learner constructs knowledge and creates meaning based on interactions and experiences. Constructivists considers memory as the accumulation of experiences, which is fluid, changing with new experiences and situations.

2. Isabel's Theory of Learning!

2.1. Every action is cause by an antecedent and a consequence. However, Behaviorism usually focus mostly on the behavior aspect.

2.1.1. For example, a baby learns to cry when she/he wants attention or when a child starts having a temper tantrum at a store because they want a toy and their parents give in because they want the child to stop crying. However, Behaviorism usually focus mostly on the behavior aspect.

2.2. I am a big advocate of teaching by example (Bandura‘s Social Learning theory).

2.3. I would like my students to participate and be active learners in my classroom. I want to make them think and see things in different ways.

2.4. It is important to present information in different ways so we can reach all of our students. I believe hands-on learning is more beneficial for students. It gives students an opportunity to explore and gain experience in different subjects.

3. Other Theories of Learning

3.1. CLT (Cognitive Load Theory)

3.1.1. Working memory is limited

3.1.2. The total cognitive load is a combination of Germane load, Intrinsic load and Extraneous load The Intrinsic cognitive load can be define as the memory required by a thinking task. Extraneous cognitive load is the information presented, this can be enhance by instructional design germane cognitive load is design instruction that promotes the connection of the material to a learner’s schema.

3.1.3. Split attention effect is when students simultaneously split their attention between different sources of information.

3.2. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning

3.2.1. There are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information (sometimes referred to as Dual-Coding theory)

3.2.2. Each channel has a limited (finite) capacity

3.2.3. Learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information based upon prior knowledge.

3.3. Universal Design of Learning (UDL)

3.3.1. Multiple means of representation to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge

3.3.2. Multiple means of expression to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know

3.3.3. Multiple means of engagement to tap into learners' interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn

3.4. 4C/ID

3.4.1. learning tasks

3.4.2. supportive information

3.4.3. procedural information

3.4.4. part-task practice


3.5.1. http://art.yale.edu/Home


3.6.1. http://www.trailsnapper.com/