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Top Notch 2 by Mind Map: Top Notch 2

1. Present Perfect (Page 4)

1.1. Use the present perfect to talk about and indefinite time in the past. Use the simple past tense to talk about a definite or specific time.

1.2. Form the present perfect with have or has and a past participle. For regular verbs: the past participle form is the same as the simple past form

1.2.1. s + have/has + past participle

2. The present perfect: already, yet, ever, and before (Page 6)

2.1. Use yet and already in questions about recent experiences.

2.1.1. already + verb

2.2. Use already in affirmative sentences, use yet in negative statements.

2.3. Use ever or before in questions about life experiences

2.3.1. ever + past participle

2.3.2. ... before ?

2.4. Use already or before in affirmative sentences, use have ever or haven't ever in negative statements.

2.4.1. have never + past participle

2.4.2. haven't ever + past participle

3. The present perfect: _for_ and _since_, Other uses (Page 16)

3.1. Use since with specific time or date in the past. Use for describe a period of time.

4. Would rather + base form (Page 18)

4.1. State preferences with would rather / would rather not and the base form of a verb.

4.1.1. would rather + base form

4.2. Use than with would rather to contrast preferences

4.3. Questions

4.4. Short answers

5. had better (Page 28)

5.1. Use had better and the base form of a verb to warn of a posible negative result. It is a stronger form of advice than should.

5.1.1. 'd better + base form

5.2. Remember: To give a suggestion or advice, use should and the base form of a verb.

5.2.1. should + base form

5.3. The negative form shouldn't is more common in questions than had better

6. the future with will (Page 30)

6.1. Use will or won't and the base form of a verb to talk about future plans

6.2. Note: will/won't be able to has the same meaning as can/can't.

6.2.1. will / won't be able to + base form

6.3. Remember: You can also talk about the future with _be going to_ the present continous, or the simple present tense.

7. the past continous (Page 40)

7.1. Use the past continuous to describe an activity that continued during a period of time in the past. Form the past continuous with _was_ or _were_ and a present participle

7.1.1. s + was/were + verb ing

7.2. Remember: The simple past tense describes a completed past action

8. Direct object placement with phrasal verbs (Page 42)

8.1. Phrasal verbs contain a verb and a particle that together have their own meaning

8.2. Many phrasal verbs are separable. This means that a direct object noun can come before or after the particle. Turn on, turn off, pick up, drop off, fill up are separable.

8.3. Be Careful! If the direct object is a pronoun, it must come before the particle.

8.3.1. I'll drop it off. NOT: I'll drop off it

9. Quantifiers for indefinite quantities and amounts (Page 52)

9.1. Use _some_ and _any_ with both plural count nouns and noun count nouns

9.1.1. _some_ : affirmative statements

9.1.2. _any_ : negative statements

9.2. some or any questions

9.3. Use _a lot of_ with both plural count nouns and non-count nouns in statements and questions.

9.4. Use _much_ and _many_ in negative statements

10. Indefinite pronouns: someone / no one / anyone (Page 54)

10.1. _Someone_, _no one_, and _anyone_ are indefinite pronouns. Each refers to an unnamed person.Use indefinite pronouns when the identity of the person is unknow or unimportant

10.2. Affirmative statements

10.3. Negative statements

10.4. Questions

10.5. Be careful! Use anyone not no one, with the negative form of a verb.

11. Use to / used to (Page 64)

11.1. Use _use to_ and _used to_ and the base form of a verb for habitual actions in the past that no longer occur.

12. Negative yes /no questions; Why not ...? (Page 67)

12.1. Use negative yes/no questions ..

12.2. to confirm information you think is true

12.3. when you want someone to agree with you

12.4. to express surprise

12.5. Use why don't ...? to make an offer or a suggestion. Why don't we ...? has the same meaning as Let's.

13. Gerunds and infinitives as direct objects (Page 76)

13.1. Gerunds and infinitives come from a verb forms but function as nouns.

13.2. Use a gerund after the following verbs

13.2.1. avoid, discuss, dislike, don't mind, enjoy, feel like, practice, quit, suggest.

13.3. Use an infinitive after the following verbs

13.3.1. agree, be sure, choose, decide, expect, hope, learn, need, plan, seem, want, wish, would like

13.4. Other verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive

13.4.1. begin, can't stand, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start

14. Gerunds as objects of prepositions (Page 78)

14.1. A gerund (-ing form of a verb) can function as an object of a preposition

14.2. Be Careful! Don't use an infinitive as the object of a preposition.

15. The passive voice (Page 88)

15.1. The active voice focuses on "the performer" of an action. The passive voice focuses on "the receiver" of the action.

15.2. Form the passive voice with a form of be and the past participle of a verb.

15.3. It is common to use the passive voice when the performer of the action is not known or not important.

15.4. Use a _by_ phrase in passive voice sentences when it is important to identify the performer of an action.

16. The passive voice: questions (Page 90)

17. The infinitive of purpouse (Page 101)

17.1. An infinitive can be used to express a purpouse.

17.2. Answering a _Why_ question with an infinitive of purpouse is similar to answering with _Because_.

18. Comparision with as ... as (Page 102)

18.1. Use as ... as to indicate how two things are equal or the same. Use the adverb just for emphasis.

18.2. Use the adverbs _almost_ or _nearly_ to indicate that two things are very similar but not exactly the same

18.3. Use not as ... as to indicate how two things are different. Use the adverb _quite_ when the difference is very small. Use the adverb _nearly_ to indicate that there's a big difference.

18.4. You can use shortened statements with as when the meaning is clear

19. The real and unreal conditional (Page 112)

19.1. Real conditional sentences express factual or future results

19.2. The unreal conditional sentences describe what happens if a condition that doesn't exist actually does occur.

19.3. In the if-clause, use the simple past tense. For the verb _be_, always use _were_.In the result clause, use would and a base form.

20. Possessive pronouns (Page 114)

20.1. Possessive pronouns can replace nouns phrases. They answer questions with _Whose_ and clarify answers to questions with _Which.

20.1.1. mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs