Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education: Chapter 2

1.1. 1) The intellectual part of education is to teach basic and simple cognitive skills like reading, writing, and arithmetic. Another purpose of intellectual education is to teach students critical thinking skills so they can analyze and evaluate different situations. The political purpose of education is to teach students the basics of patriotism and allegiance to their country. We want to aim to inform students of the basic laws of society so they can be adequately prepared citizens in the political order. The purpose of the social side of education is to help students solve social problems, to be able to work as a cohesive unit in their family and in society. This aspect is vital in the stability of society. The purpose of the economic side of education is to ready students for their future jobs. Typically, schools play an indirect role in this process.

1.2. 2) I chose the role of the school in the liberal perspective because I believe that in the school system students should have equal opportunity. Also, because this perspective aims to develop students creativity, talents, and self esteem which I believe is extremely vital for the students with their roles in society. In the explanations of unequal performance portion I chose the conservative perspective because I believe that students from low income households or low socioeconomic backgrounds have the same ability as others more fortunate if they work hard and strive to be as intelligent as possible. The definition of educational problems portion I chose the conservative perspective because I agree with their idea of a decline in standards in the school system. Those standards involve the decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, and decline of authority. They believe schools are insufficient in the educational quality and this resulted in lowering academic standards.

2. History of U.S Education: Chapter 3

2.1. 1) I believe that the Progressive movement had the most influence on education. This movement occurred during the years 1900-1914. This movement relied on government regulation on natural resources and in the school system. John Dewey was a U.S philosopher during this time period and he was a big time advocate of this reform movement. He believed that the curriculum's in the school system should allow children to develop their own interests. He also believed that education stood for growth and during this time period education was rapidly growing. This reform movement, in my opinion, has had the most influence on education due to the fact that this was basically the starting point in recognizing the importance of education in everyday life.

2.1.1. 2) The radical-revisionist believed they expanded the education system to benefit the upper class society for the control of economic productivity. They believe that every other period of historical interpretation of U.S education ultimately led to stratification in the school systems. This view examines the expansion of education as imposing on the less fortunate and working class. This is a very pessimistic view of U.S education.

3. Sociological Perspectives: Chapter 4

3.1. 1) Schools shape the way children think and act and how they see the world by a process called socialization. This is the values, and beliefs that children come in contact with everyday in school systems that will shape the way they act in society. Schools reproduce the society around it through systematic socialization of the young children. Functionalism views society like a machine in which one part articulates with another to make the energy required for society. Schools socialize students into certain values, and select students based on their talents and abilities. Conflict theory is unlike the other two in the sense that social order is based on a groups ability to dominate the other groups in society. Schools are similar to social battlefields, for example when students struggle against teachers and teachers struggle against administrators. Interactional theories are similar to the first two theories just more in depth. This theory examines the everyday life of a student as it relates to everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between people in the school system.

3.1.1. 2) The first effect on schooling on individuals that I'm choosing is knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge, according to the book, is often directly correlated to the students social background. Attitude is also related to where students come from and their willingness to learn. Education is also related to the students wellbeing and self-esteem. The next effect that I'm going to discuss is employment. Employers want people who have been educated properly, for example a college graduate is going to have an upper leg on somebody that doesn't have a degree. I believe this is true in just about every job now a days. The third effect is education and mobility. This portion of the reading discusses how highly educated individuals and where people go to school will effect their role in society. I don't really agree with this portion because I've seen several people become successful without having a degree in their hands. The fourth effect I'm choosing is inside the schools. This portion of the reading discusses schools sizes and curriculum and how it expresses culture. The reading states that curriculum placement has a direct effect on who attends colleges. I find this very interesting and something that needs to be addressed at a national level because if there is a curriculum that is helping students get to college than every school should be using that curriculum in some form or fashion. And the last effect that I'm going to discuss is teacher behavior. The reading talks about how teachers behaviors have a direct impact on the students they see everyday. Teachers have to set standards for students and influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy. Teachers can't do this if they themselves have bad behavior.

4. Philosophy of Education: Chapter 5

4.1. 1) Existentialism is a modern philosophy that states that individuals are placed on this earth alone and must make sense of the chaos they encounter. The generic notions of existentialism are considering that it is a philosophical movement that has key implications for education. Existentialists pose questions as to how their concerns impact the lives of individuals. The goal of education in existentialism is to stress individuality s well as focusing on the needs of the individual both cognitively and affectively. The role of the teacher in existentialism is to take risks and help their students become more aware of everything in their lives. Some key researchers in existentialism are Soren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Sartre, and Maxine Greene. The methods of instruction in existentialism are thought of as personal. They believe that instruction should be personal based on individual students needs because each student learns differently. The curriculum for existentialism is heavily based toward the humanities and literature.

5. Schools as Organizations: Chapter 6

5.1. 1) Madison County State Senators: Tim Melson, William Holtzclaw, and Arthur Orr. Madison County House of Representatives: Phil Williams, Mike Ball, Laura Hill, Howard Sanderford, Jim Patterson, Ritchie Whorton, Mac McCutcheon, Anthony Daniels. State Superintendent of Alabama: Michael Sentence. Representative on State School Board: Kay Ivey, Michael Sentence, Mary Scott Hunter, Yvette Richardson, Jackie Ziegler, Betty Peters, Stephanie Bell, Ella Bell, Cynthia McCarthy, Jeffrey Newman. Local Superintendent: Robbie Parker. Local School Board: Madison City Schools Board of Education.

5.2. 2) Changes within school processes and school culture: In Madison City schools we all follow similar schedules. Elementary schools start school around 7:45 and get out around 2:45. Middle schools start at 8:05 and end around 3:05. And high schools get start at 8:15 and get out at 3:27. The culture is much different in every school. High school is a much more mature culture than that of the middle schools. And the same can be said about the middle schools compared to the elementary schools. Teachers for the most part are much more strict in high school than middle school and elementary school. Students can drive to school in high school unlike middle and elementary school.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy: Chapter 7

6.1. 1) The curriculum theory that I will advocate is the developmentalist curriculum. I will choose this curriculum because it focuses on the needs and interests of the students rather than the needs and interest of society. I believe this would help students grow immensely into who they want to become when they graduate.

6.2. 2) The first dominant tradition of teaching is the mimetic tradition. This tradition is based on the viewpoint of the purpose of education specific knowledge to students. The second dominant tradition of teaching is the transformative tradition. This tradition is different from the mimetic tradition because it focuses on changing the student in a meaningful way such as spiritually and emotionally.

7. Equality of Opportunity: Chapter 8

7.1. 1) Race, class, and gender have a direct impact on educational outcomes of students. Students class they live in has a direct relationship to their achievement and educational outcomes. According to the chapter teachers have been shown to show favoritism to students of the upper and middle class. When it comes to race, minority students receive fewer educational opportunities than white students. Gender does not have as big of an impact as the other two. Recently, women have caught up to men in terms of educational attainment.

7.2. 2) The first response was that their is little basis for the conclusion that Catholic schools are educationally superior to public schools. The second response described that students attending a high poverty school or a highly segregated school will have a direct reflection on their achievement outcomes.

8. Educational Inequality: Chapter 9

8.1. 1) Cultural deprivation theory has to deal with working class and specifically non-white families that may lack certain resources that their children may need to succeed in school. Therefore, when they arrive at school they are at a disadvantage compared to their classmates. This theory suggests that children who grow up in poverty and less fortunate households have not been raised to succeed in school and don't know how to succeed in school as well as other more fortunate students.

8.2. 2) The first school centered explanation that I'm going to discuss is school financing. Certain school districts are taxed differently based on their location and the poorer communities don't have the money to get the same resources in the schools as a more wealthy community. And this is an extreme disadvantage for the poorer school systems and communities. The next school centered explanation that I'm going to discuss is effective school research. This portion of the chapter discusses the effective research that needs to be done between school systems and communities. They want to do this to look at how they can improve the schools from within the school systems instead of just looking at the community around them and using that as a reason why test scores are so low for certain communities. The next school centered explanation that I'm going to discuss is the difference between curriculum and pedagogic practices. This portion of the chapter discusses students succeeding with different methods of teaching. Some school systems have higher test scores when the teachers uses their own pedagogic form of teaching instead of following the curriculum word for word. This section tries to explain that reasoning. The last school centered explanation that I'm going to discuss is gender and schooling. This section discusses how men and women see the world differently and how schooling limits opportunities for women in several ways. One way is by the curriculum portraying men and women's roles in a stereotypical way. There are other ways they discuss how women are limited in the school systems as well.

9. Educational Reform Chapter: Chapter 10

9.1. 1) School to work programs were implemented to help non-college bound students acquire skills necessary for successful employment. An act was passed in 1994 to implement this particular program. Every school system and state had to have three elements for this school to work program to ultimately be effective. Researchers found this program had often failed to keep their promises. The next school based reform that I'm going to discuss is privatization. Privatization discusses how the difference between public and private schools became blurred in the early 1990's. This section in the chapter also discusses how many school districts have started using for-profit companies to take their schools over and try to improve them.

9.2. 2) One economic reform that the chapter discusses is a district takeover and they are used as accountability measures. This allows the state to take control of the school district. Another reform that is economic is mayoral control over the urban districts. Some business leaders feel this is more effective than traditional elected school boards. A political reform that was implemented in 1998 required full day kindergarten, a plan to eliminate overcrowding, and preschool for 3-4 year-olds. Another political reform that was established was increased security in the schools. One community based reform that was established was the full service model of schools, which focus on meeting students and their families educational needs as well as physical and psychological. One societal reform that has been established in Harlem is the "Baby College" reform. This program has teachers of every race teach the students and have academic conversations with them. The "Baby College" even buys items that parents need and cannot afford.