My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education (Ch. 2)

1.1. The Four Purposes of Education:

1.1.1. 1. The intellectual purpose focuses on the idea that cognitive skills (reading, writing, and mathematics) must be taught. Students should come out with thinking skills that will enable them to use analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

1.1.2. 2. The political purpose focuses on the idea that students should be taught allegiance to the current political order and how to be a good citizen that will participate in society. However, it is also important that the students come out of education with the basic laws of society and understanding of different cultural groups.

1.1.3. 3. The social purpose focuses on the idea that a school should function as only one of the institutions that help develop social cohesion. Children should be socialized into different roles and understand the different values, which is the key ingredient for the stability of any society.

1.1.4. 4. The economic purpose focuses on the idea that schools should prepare students for their future role/occupation and their development into the different divisions of labor.

1.2. Conservative Perspective:

1.2.1. The role of school is to give students the necessary education so that they are able to develop themselves. This elevates those that are most hard-working and talented, which allows for the workforce to choose the best for specific jobs and to be sure the jobs are done correctly. Cultural traditions should also be taught through the curriculum so that the students come out with a knowledge of the country and a respect for it.

1.2.2. Explanations of unequal performance: individuals or groups of students excel or fall at the expense of their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative. The school is there to give the opportunity for success, but it will not be handed freely. It is the responsibility of the student to work hard and diligently to achieve the success that is desired.

1.2.3. Definition of educational problems: 1) demand for equality has caused a decline of standards and reduced educational quality. 2) Because of the liberal and radical desires for a multicultural education, the American heritage and patriotism has seemed to decline. The curriculum has weakened schools ability to instill those important factors into the children. 3) Cultural relativism has caused schools to lose the ability to teach basic moral standards and values to the students, which in turn has caused a decline of values for civilization. 4) Due to the desire for individuality and freedom, schools lost their authority to discipline traditionally which has caused many children to lose a lack of understanding of authoritative figures. 5) State controlled education can not be altered by the free market, which causes them to become inefficient in their works.

2. History of U.S. Education (Ch. 3)

2.1. Reform Most Influence on Education:

2.1.1. Education for Women and African Americans has had what I believe to be the most influence on the educational system. Instead of education being only for upper class white males, it has been opened up to the others. Sure, there are still struggles, but I believe by integrating women and African-Americans into the education system, it allowed for much needed diversity and equality. Who was to say that an African male did not have the same intellectual ability as a white male? Who said a woman could not have a secondary education if she so desired to. I believe by doing this, it changed the entire education department. The diversity that was so desperately desired was gained and America expanded its knowledge and increased the amount of knowledgable citizens.

2.2. One historical interpretation of U.S. education:

2.2.1. The Conservative Perspective: U.S. schools became mediocre due to the attempt at solving social problems. During the attempts to add multiculturalism into the studies has caused some neglect to the heritage of the civilizations. The adjustments made to meet these needs has caused the academics to become watered down. Ultimately, through the changes of U.S. Education, there has been a decrease in the academic excellence. Often conservatives overlook the effects of poverty on student achievement, which does not need to be overlooked.

3. Sociological Perspectives (Ch. 4)

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Functional Theory: focuses on the interdependence of the social system, which means how well the different parts work together. A functional theorist named Emile Durkheim promoted the idea of values and cohesion for society. A social consensus/unity is the normal state and what society should look like.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory: focuses on the idea that different people groups that are dominant in society will continue the inequality because they will impose their ideas on the lesser/subordinate groups. The class struggle will ultimately bleed into the classroom as well. Cultural capital (knowledge of art, music, and literature) and social capital (networking/connections) are given by families and show class differences based on the knowledge and way of connecting. It is natural and it will always be unequal.

3.1.3. Interactionalism Theory: focuses on giving different answers to some of the abstract ideas that the conflict and functional theory give. Instead of thinking abstractly, they try to take simple, everyday behaviors and examine the results. It deals with the reactions and actions between the teacher and the student and observes those actions to help understand the social system.

3.2. 5 Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Attitudes of Students: whether sociologists want to admit it or not, I believe that schooling has a direct impact on the attitudes of students and their success. The higher the social class, normally the higher the success. If a school breeds this type of belief, the attitudes of the lower class students may become worse or bitter and they will give up. The school has the responsibility of treating the students the same, no matter their class status, which will help the development of the student.

3.2.2. Employment: When a student graduates from college, there are greater opportunities that are opened up for them. Thus, when a person is educated, they have better chances at certain careers or goals that they aim themselves toward.

3.2.3. Mobility of social class: through education, people in lower social classes have the opportunity to rise in class based on their merit and educational accomplishments. Although sometimes this may not hold true, I feel as though it Is overarching through most experiences. Education is the ultimate way for people to take control of their own life and move forward and go where they desire to go.

3.2.4. Student Peer Groups: student friend groups have a lot to do with the educational experiences that they undergo. Some groups experience a great educational experience and encourage one another to do better, however, when bullying begins, it tends to give students a worse experience which can negatively effect their educational experiences.

3.2.5. Gender Bias: Whether schools admit it or not, gender bias is still an issue. This can cause individuals to feel certain ways about specific careers, jobs, and even studies. Women, in general, get paid less than men. Teachers often break students up into groups of males and females. Even visibly, teachers are primarily women and administrators are men. This puts an idea into the students minds of what society is like. Even though no one may specifically say that teaching is only for females, sometimes students can come out of high school with that belief due to their experiences I the school system.

4. Philosophy of Education (Ch. 5)

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic Notions: Students should learn both concrete information from textbooks, but also by experimentation. Children should be engaged in learning and planning the course of study that is desired. Essentially, find processes that will lead you to your end goal.

4.1.2. Key Researchers: From America- George Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. From Europe- Frances Bacon, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.1.3. Goal of Education: Schools should be a place where ideas can be given, challenged, then restructured. While doing so, they hope that students will gain a knowledge of how to improve social order. Overall, schools should prepare students for a life in a democratic society, which will give them the opportunity to be a successful member of society and help the social order.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher: The teacher is just the vessel that gives the knowledge to students. Not an all-knowing being or superior authority, just a person that will help students be successful in their career by encouragement, planning course of study/curriculum, and answering questions.

4.1.5. Method of Instruction: Children need to learn through lecture, but also through social group interactions. They refer to this as problem-solving or inquiry method. For example, students will learn from textbooks, but also on field trips where they will be interacting with each other and others. It is more relaxed than other methods of strict instruction.

4.1.6. Curriculum: a particular subject is studied under the views of math, science, history, reading, writing, art, etc. Everything is integrated in some way with each other so that it can be applied to real life circumstances. Curriculum shifts and changes as the social order changes and flexes depending on the interests and needs of children at the time. It seems to be more child-centered curriculum than other curriculum patterns.

5. Schools as Organizations (Ch. 6)

6. Equality of Opportunity (Ch. 8)

7. Educational Reform (Ch. 10)

8. Curriculum and Pedagogy (Ch. 7)

9. Educational Inequality (Ch. 9)