Foundation of Education

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Foundation of Education by Mind Map: Foundation of Education

1. Chapter 6 - Schools as Organizations

1.1. Stakeholders

1.1.1. Local Superintendent

1.1.1.1. Lauderdale County School System Superintendent 2017: Jonathan Hatton

1.1.2. State Senators

1.1.2.1. Alabama has two state senators that where elected for staggered 6 year terms. There is one republican and one democratic senator for Alabama.

1.1.3. House of Representatives

1.1.3.1. The Alabama House of Representatives has seven representatives in the US House of Representatives.

1.1.4. State Superiendent

1.1.4.1. Michael Sentance eas appointed as Alabama State Superintendent in September 206 and is the current agency head.

1.1.5. Representative on State School Board

1.1.5.1. President (The Governor of Alabama)- Kay Ivey

1.1.5.2. Superintendent/Secretary- Michael Sentance

1.1.5.3. Board Members:

1.1.5.3.1. District 1: Jackie Ziegler, (R) (2017- present)

1.1.5.3.2. District 2: Betty Peters, (R) (2003-present)

1.1.5.3.3. District 3: Stephanie W. Bell, (R) (1995-present)

1.2. Elements of Change

1.2.1. School processes

1.2.2. School Cultures

1.3. Centralization

1.3.1. Definition: The concentration of control of an activity or organization under a single authority.

1.4. Consolodation

1.4.1. Definition: The action or making something stronger or mire solid.

1.4.2. As an action of consolidation, the average # of pupils per elementary public schools rose from 91 in the early 1930s to 450 in the late 1980s.

2. Chapter 4 - Sociological Perspectives

2.1. The Use of Sociology for Teachers

2.1.1. The conceptual tools of sociology are ideally suited to guide one towards systematic thinking

2.1.2. Sociology provides teachers with special analytic lens on education

2.2. The Relation between School and Society

2.2.1. Theoretical Perspectives

2.2.1.1. Theoretical pictures of society are created and interpreted by them.

2.2.1.2. Theory is one of the best conceptual guides to understanding the relation between school and society.

2.2.2. Functional Theories

2.2.2.1. Functional sociologist begin with a picture of society that stresses the interdependence of the social system.

2.2.2.2. Functionalists view society as a kind of machine.

2.2.3. Conflict Theories

2.2.3.1. Conflict sociologists do not see the relation between school and society as straightforward.

2.2.3.2. View schools as battlefields.

2.2.4. Interactional Theories

2.2.4.1. Interactional theories view school and society as primarily critiques a

2.3. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

2.3.1. Knowledge & Attitudes

2.3.1.1. There are various studies on education and how the importance of schooling in terms of knowledge and attitudes young people acquire in school (pg. 121).

2.3.2. Employment

2.3.2.1. Students believe that graduating from college will lead to greater opportunities in their future

2.3.3. Education & Mobility

2.3.3.1. The belief that occupational and social mobility begin at the schoolhouse door is a critical component of the American ethos.

3. Chapter 5 - Philosophy of Education

3.1. What is Philosophy of Education?

3.1.1. Philosophy of education is firmly rooted in practice,

3.2. Descriptions of Philosophies in Education

3.2.1. Generic Notions

3.2.2. Goal of Education

3.2.3. Role of Teacher

3.2.4. Methods of Instruction

3.2.5. Curriculum

3.3. Particular Philosophies of Education

3.3.1. Idealism

3.3.1.1. The first systematic philosophy

3.3.1.2. Thought to be the creation of the Greek philosopher, Plato.

3.3.2. Realism

3.3.2.1. A philosophy that follows in the same historical tradition as idealism.

3.3.2.2. Aristotle is known to be the leading proponent of realism.

3.3.3. Pragmatism

3.3.3.1. Is a philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve desired ends.

3.3.3.2. Pragmatists are action oriented and grounded.

3.3.4. Phenomenology

3.3.4.1. Phenomenology is very similar to Existentialism.

3.3.4.2. Primarily developed by Edmund Husserl (1859-1935).

3.3.5. Existentialism

3.3.5.1. Existentialism is a modern philosophy.

3.3.5.2. Its roots can be traced back to the Bible.

3.3.5.3. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)

3.3.6. Postmodernist & Critical Theory

3.3.6.1. Postmodernism developed out of a profound dissatisfaction with modernism.

4. Chapter 2 - Politics of Education

4.1. Purpose of Schooling

4.1.1. Intellectual

4.1.1.1. teach basic cognitive skills (ex: math, language, science, history, reading, etc.)

4.1.2. Political

4.1.2.1. prepare to participate in political order (ex: voting, patriotism, democracies)

4.1.3. Economic

4.1.3.1. prepare students for late occupational roles

4.1.4. Social

4.1.4.1. ensure social cohesion (ex: socialization)

4.2. Perspectives

4.2.1. Conservative

4.2.1.1. Individuals and groups must compete in the social environment in order to survive.

4.2.2. Liberal

4.2.2.1. Liberals believe the capitalist market economy is prone to cycles of recession.

4.2.3. Radical

4.2.3.1. Is the belief that social problems are endemic to capitalism (ex: poverty, educational problems, etc.).

4.2.3.2. This perspective believes social problems are structural in nature

4.2.4. Neo-Liberal

4.2.4.1. Is often a synthesis of conservative and liberal perspectives.

4.2.4.2. Stress five areas for educational policy

4.2.4.2.1. 1. Austerity

4.2.4.2.2. 2. The market model

4.2.4.2.3. 3. Individualism

4.2.4.2.4. 4. State intervention

4.2.5. Political

4.2.5.1. Debates about educational isses

5. Chapter 3 - History of U.S. Education

5.1. Cycles of Reform

5.1.1. Progressive

5.1.1.1. Progressives believes in experiential education

5.1.2. Traditional

5.1.2.1. Traditionalist believed in knowledge- centered education

5.2. The Age of Reform

5.2.1. Opposition to Public Education

5.2.1.1. (ex: taxation for public education was viewed "unjust" by recipients)

5.2.1.2. 1862, Congress passed the Morrill Act

5.2.1.2.1. Morrill Act authorized the use of public money to establish public land grant universities

5.2.2. Education for Women & African Americans

5.2.2.1. 1821, Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary

5.2.2.2. 1833, Oberlin Collegiate Institute opened its doors to women & African Americans

5.2.2.3. 1865, Congress passed the 14th amendment

5.2.2.4. 1868, 14th amendment was ratified giving citizenship to ex-slaves

5.2.3. Education for All

5.2.3.1. In the 1890s a committee issued a report in 1893 supporting academic purposes

5.3. Historical Interpretations

5.3.1. The Democratic-Liberal School

5.3.1.1. Democratic Liberals believe that the history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution

5.3.2. Conservative Perspectives

5.3.2.1. Conservative criticism regarding education was political and historical

5.3.3. The Radical - Revisionist School

5.3.3.1. The radical revisionist historians revised the history of education in a more critical direction

5.4. Equality of Opportunity

5.4.1. Mann's vision of schooling as a "great equalizer"

5.4.2. Dewey's notion that the schools would be a "lever of social progress"

5.4.3. GI Bill of Rights offered 16 mil servicemen and women the opportunity to pursue a higher education

5.4.4. Brown vs Topeka Board of Education 1954

6. Chapter 7 - Curriculum, and Pedagogy

6.1. Historical Curriculum

6.1.1. Developmentalist Curriculum- Is related to the needs and interest of the student rather than the needs of society.

6.2. Sociological Curriculum

6.2.1. Modern Functionalist theory- was developed in the US through the works of Talcott Parsons and Robert Dreeben. This theory stressed the role of the schools in preparing students for the increasingly complex roles required ina modern society.

6.3. Politics of curriculm

6.3.1. This analyzes the struggles over different conceptions of what should be taught.

6.3.2. Influences on Curriculum Policy Making

6.3.2.1. General Lesilative

6.3.2.2. Educational LEgislative

6.3.2.3. Executive

6.3.2.4. Administrtative School

6.3.2.5. Bureaucratic

6.3.2.6. Professional Association

6.3.2.7. Private Interests

6.4. Pedagogical Progressivism

6.4.1. this stressed the relationship between schooling and the activities of adults within society. Given the stratified nature of adult roles, the school curriculum was tailored to prepare students for these diverse places in society.

6.5. Romantic Progrssicism

6.5.1. placed its philosophical allegiance squarely within this form of curriculum and pedagogy.

6.6. Contemporary Critical Curriculum Theory

6.6.1. The social meliorist tradition. It stresses the role of the curriculum in moving students to become aware of societal problems and active in changing the world.

7. Chapter 8 - Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Race

7.1.1.1. An individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he/she wants to achieve.

7.1.1.1.1. Ex: 16-24 yr olds, 5.2% of white students drop out of school, 9.3 %$ of African-American students, and 17.6% of Hispanic students.

7.1.2. Class

7.1.2.1. Different social classes have different educational experiences and have several factors that base these educational experiences.

7.1.2.1.1. Ex: education is expensive, and parental financial support,

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. Historically, an individual's gender was directly related to his/her educational attainment. In the past women where less likely to attain the same level of education then men.

7.1.3.1.1. In the last 20 years, gender differences between men and women, in terms of educational attainment, have been reduced.

7.1.3.1.2. Data shows that not only have girls caught up to boys in almost all measures of academic achievement, policy markers are now discovering the "boy problem".

7.2. Coleman Study 1966

7.2.1. The results of this study showed that the organizational differences between school were not particulary important in determining student outcomes when compared to the differences in student-body compositions between schools,

7.2.1.1. Students who attended schools that were predominantly middle class were more likely to do better on tests of achievement than students who attended school where middle-class students were not a majority.

7.3. Coleman Study of 1982

7.3.1. In the examination of effects, statistical controls on family background are introduced, in order to control on those background on those background characteristics that are most related to achievement.

7.3.1.1. Coleman and his colleagues argued that private schools were more effective learning environments than public schools because they place more emphasis on academic activities and because private schools enforce discipline in a way that is consistent with student achievement.

7.4. Abbott v. Burke

7.4.1. One of the results of this case decision was that the high-need, low-income urban districts are founded at the average of the state's highest socioeconomic districts, and receive more money than al but the highest-income districts.

7.5. Achievement Gap

7.5.1. The achievement gap between poor and middle-class black and white children is widely recognized as our most important educational challenge. There are several different gaps that stem in failing of closing the achievement gap for schools and students.

7.5.1.1. The Reading Gap

7.5.1.2. The Conversation Gap

7.5.1.3. The Role Model Gap

7.5.1.4. The Health and Housing Gaps

7.5.1.5. Narrowing the Gaps

8. Chapter 9 - Educational Inequality

8.1. Two Types of Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. The first theory shows that researchers argue that African-American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure.

8.1.1.1. Obu concluded that although there were school-based reasons for unequal achievement, especially the under representation of African-American students in honors had to do with student, parental, and community cultures..

8.1.2. The second type of cultural difference theory sees working-class and nonwhite students as resisting the dominant culture of the schools.

8.1.2.1. From this view point, these students reject the white middle-class culture of academic success and embrace a different, often antischool culture-one that is opposed to the culture of schooling as it currently exists.

8.2. Four School-Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality

8.2.1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. Comparison of public schools in affluent suburbs with public schools in poor inner cities. There where vast differences in funding between affluent and poor districts.

8.2.2. Effective School Research

8.2.2.1. This research suggests that there are school-centered processes that help to explain unequal educational achievement by different groups of students.

8.2.3. Between-School Differencies

8.2.3.1. This theory by Berntein states that the type of schooling corresponds to the social class of students in a particular school, with such differences a vehicle for socializing students from different social class backgrounds to their different places in society.

8.2.3.1.1. Curriculum

8.2.3.1.2. Pedagogic Practices

8.2.4. Within-School Differences

8.2.4.1. Curriculum

8.2.4.2. Ability Grouping

8.2.4.3. Gender

8.2.4.4. Schooling

8.2.4.5. Research indicates that differences in tracks help to explain the variation in academic achievement for students in different tracks.

8.3. Interactionism Theory

8.3.1. This theory suggests that onne must understand how people within institutions such as families and schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success and failure.

8.4. Student-Centered Explanations

8.4.1. Genetic Differences

8.4.2. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.4.3. Cultural Difference Theories

8.5. Equality of Educational Opportunity

8.5.1. Commonly referred to as the Coleman Report, argued that school differences were not the most significant explanatory variable for the lower educational achievement of working-class and nonwhite students.

9. Chapter 10 - Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. Privitization

9.1.1.1. From the 1900s, the traditional distinction between public and private education became blurred in a variety of way.

9.1.1.1.1. First, for-profit companies, such as the Edison Company, took over the management of failing schools and districts.

9.1.1.1.2. Second, for-profit companies, such as Kaplan and Sylvan Learning Centers, have majority of contracts for supplemental tutoring under NCLB.

9.1.2. School-based

9.1.2.1. School Choice

9.1.2.1.1. School choice was expressed in a bill that was passed by the House of Representatives in the summer of 1990, which provided federal support for open enrollment experiments.

9.1.2.2. Charter Schools

9.1.2.2.1. The "Charter" itself is a performance contract that details the school's mission, program, goals, students served, methods of assessment, and ways to measure success.

9.1.2.3. Tuition Vouchers

9.1.2.3.1. Vouchers went directly to families rather than to religious schools and because they could be used in either religious or secular private schools, the vouchers did not violate the constitutional prohibition against public money being used.

9.1.3. School-to-Work Programs

9.1.3.1. School-business partnerships became incorporated into school-to-work programs. Their intent was to extend what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college bound students regarding skills necessary for successful employment.

9.2. Political/Economic Reforms

9.2.1. State Intervention

9.2.1.1. State intervention is till relatively limited and fragmentary, but has advantages and disadvantages.

9.2.1.1.1. Advantages: Takeover can help create a healthy environment in which the local community can address a school district's problem.

9.2.1.1.2. Disadvantages: Takeover tends to rely on narrow learning experiences and measures (ex: standardized test scores) as the primary criterion for takeover decisions.

9.2.2. Mayoral Control of Urban Districts

9.2.2.1. Mayoral control eliminates corruption, leads to effective and efficient managements and budgets, increases student achievement, and reduces the political battles endemic to elected school boards.

9.2.3. School Finance

9.2.3.1. Advocates litigated at the state level.

9.3. Centralized Education

9.3.1. A centralized organization, the decision-making authority lies with a group or individual at the top.

9.4. Decentralized Education

9.4.1. A decentralized organization spreads the decision-making authority to managers at various level.

9.5. Charter Schools

9.5.1. Charter schools are public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools, and in return are held accountable for student performance.

9.6. "No Child Left Behind"

9.6.1. Represented a logical extension of a standards movement that tossed the critique of US education. IT mandates the uniform standards for all students in order to reduce and eventually eliminate the social class and race achievement gap.

9.6.2. The "No Child Left Behind Act" was the centerpiece of President George W. Bush's educational policy.