My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

1.1. 1.) Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes. 2.) What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982?

1.2. 1.) Class: parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. Race: Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans. Gender: Disparities still exist in education and job salaries.

1.3. 2.) The Coleman Study 1982: Private school students outperform public school students. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students.

2. Politics of Education Chapter 2

2.1. Four purposes of Education:

2.2. Intellectual- cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language

2.2.1. Political- to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism Social- to help people be sociable, productive member of society Economic- prepare students for their occupation

2.3. Neo-Liberal:

2.4. 1.) the role of the school

2.5. 2.) Explanations of unequal performance;

2.6. 3.) definition of educational problems

3. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

3.1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education.

3.1.1. The Rise of the Common School: When Jefferson supported the rise and growth of public education. A lot of us probably wouldn't have received an education if it wasn't for public education.

3.2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. Education.

3.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School (p.83) : believed that the history of U.S. education involved the progression of a school system that would provide equal opportunity to all students. Their views were more optimistic approaches to a flawed system.

4. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

4.1. Theoretical Perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society:

4.1.1. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students

4.1.2. Teacher Behavior *It is harder for teachers to provide more specialized teaching, or one-on-one teaching to students in need because of the expectations set on teachers. The class sizes are way over what would be ideal for the expectation of teaching vs. the reality of the situation. Inadequate Schools *If schools do not meet certain educational standards and don't have as many resources available, then the students chance of equal opportunity among their peers declines

4.1.3. Gender *the lack of equality of genders in certain fields. Stereotyping a certain gender to a certain field makes a higher percentage of the opposite gender not want to pursue that career path. Employment *higher education results in better, higher paying jobs Knowledge & Attitudes: *The wealthier the class the higher level of standards of education is received

4.2. Functional- poses that society is best when a concensus rules

4.3. Conflict- poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups

4.4. Interactional- poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

5. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

5.1. Pragmatism

5.1.1. Learning through experience. Pragmatism- encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome.

5.2. Key Researchers: John Dewey, George Sanders Pierce, WIliam James, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau ~Goal of Education: provide students with the knowledge to improve society. ~Role of the teacher- facilitator of learning activities. ~Methods of Instruction- learn individually as well as in groups. ~Curriculum-integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum

6. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

6.1. ~Identify major stakeholders in YOUR district by name

6.1.1. ~Limestone County School Board representative: Mr. Earl Glaze ~ House of Representatives: Mike Ball ~ State Superintendent: Mr. Michael Sentance ~ Representative on State School Board: Ella Bell ~Local Superintendent: Dr. Tom Sisk ~ State Senator: Mr. Richard Shelby ~Representatives on State School Board: *Kay Ivey *Jackie Zeigler * Betty Peters * Stephanie Bell * Yvette Richardson * Ella Bell * Cynthia Sanders McCarthy * Jeffrey Newman *Mary Scott Hunter * Michael Sentance

6.2. Identify and describe the elements of change within school processes and school cultures

6.3. Each state is responsible for education

6.4. Department of Education started in 1970

6.5. F.A.P.E. law- Free Appropriate Public Education

6.6. Schools are separate social organizations because: 1) they have definitive populations 2) they have political structures 3) represent a multitude of social groups 4) prevailed by the "we feeling" 5) own special culture

6.7. ~Teachers and in conflict with students (curriculum vs. social goals of students) ~Administration vs. Teachers (structure vs. teaching) ~Communities vs. Administration

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

7.1. 1.) Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate. 2.) Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching.

7.2. Social influences, political influences

7.3. Social Efficiency- became the cornerstone of progressivism

7.4. Formal Curriculum- what is cognitively taught (subjects)

7.5. Informal or Hidden Curriculum- taught but not obvious to sight

7.6. Null Curriculum- what is not taught but is learned (values of the community

7.7. Pedagogic Influences & Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching

7.8. Effective Characteristics of Schools: 1.) The administration (principal) is highly visible, involved and is the instructional leader 2.) Student progress is monitored constantly 3.) Safe and orderly environments 4.) Clear Missions 5.) High expectations for students

8. Education Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. 1.) Explain the two types of cultural deprivation theory. 2.) Describe at least four school-centered explanations for educational inequality

8.2. 1.) Cultural deprivation theorist Oscar Lewis (1966) studied poverty in Mexico and came to the conclusion that ".... the poor have a deprived culture-- one that lacks the value system of middle-class culture" (p.423). Another cultural deprivation theorist Deutsch (1964) states that ...." this deprivation results in educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for satisfactory academic achievement" (Dougherty & Hammack, 1990, p.341).

8.3. 2.) ~School Financing: Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources (p. 428). Property taxes also fund public schools. If the school is in a poorer community then the property taxes will be lower and schools will not get as much funding. By contrast, more affluent communities pay a higher property tax, therefore the schools receive more funding. ~Effective Schools: For schools to be effective, characteristics of effective schools include (Stedman, 1987) : *A climate of high expectations for students by teachers and admin. * Strong and effective leadership by a principal or school head. * Accountability processes for students and teachers. * The monitoring of student learning. * A high degree of instructional time on task. * Flexibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems. ~Between School Differences: curriculum taught and different pedagogic practices. ~Within School Differences: curriculum and ability grouping. This occurs when students are broke up into different groups based on their academic ability level, such as reading, standardized test scores, and teacher recommendations.

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. 1.) Describe two school-based reforms. 2.) Describe two societal, economic, community, or political reforms.

9.2. 1.) School Choice, charter schools, tuition vouchers. Intersectional Choice- (public to private). Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district).

9.3. 2.) ~Neo-liberal approach- stresses the independent power of schools in eliminating the achievement gap for low-income students. ~ Societal/ Community-based approach- stresses that school level reform alone is necessary but insufficient, and that societal and community level reforms are necessary.