Autonomy: The Aim of Education Envisioned by Piaget By Deborah Green

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Autonomy: The Aim of Education Envisioned by Piaget By Deborah Green by Mind Map: Autonomy: The Aim of Education Envisioned by Piaget  By Deborah Green

1. Jean Piaget

1.1. Theory of Child Development

1.1.1. Misconceptions about developmental stages Children cannot be expected to understand concepts if a concept does not fall within their developmental level. p. 1 Focusing on the developmental stages theory of Child development limits teachers understanding and does not give them useful guidelines to use when working with students. P. 1

1.1.2. Piaget identified autonomy and constructivism as the two MOST IMPORTANT aspects of his theory. P. 1 Autonomy means to govern oneself. P. 1 Constructivism is the theory that children construct knowledge by creating and coordinating relationships. P. 5

1.1.3. The focus of schools based on Piaget's theories Intellectual and moral autonomy of the students. P. 1

2. Intellectual Autonomy

2.1. Autonomy should be the aim of public education. P. 6

2.2. Education at all levels under emphasizes thinking. P. 7

2.3. Constructed from within, and not internalized directly from the environment.

2.4. Constructivism

2.4.1. Children are not passive learners. P. 4 Children respond to and respect rules that they make for themselves. P. 10 Children achieve goals that they set for themselves. P. 10

2.4.2. Children construct knowledge by creating and coordinating relationships. P. 4

2.4.3. Questioning a child's logic allows them to correct themselves, and recognize their own mistakes. P. 6

2.4.4. children learn by modifying old ideas, not accumulating new ones. P. 8 Children learn to think critically. P. 8 All ideas are respected, even the wrong ones. P. 8 Children's ideas are respected, and given serious consideration. P. 8 Neccessary for the development of Logic. P. 8 Students should be encouraged to compare and evaluate. P. 9

2.5. Anne- Nelly Perret- Clermont

2.5.1. Researcher who studied the effects of social interaction on cognitive development in children. P.8 When children spent 10 minutes confronting the ideas of other children they showed higher levels of logical reasoning. P.8 Social life in the classroom affects children's intellectual development. P. 8 Exchanging points of view positively affects social, moral, and political development. P. 8

3. Heteronomy

3.1. Moral Heteronomy

3.1.1. To be governed by someone else. P. 1

3.1.2. Adults reinforce heteronomy in children when they use rewards, and punishments to manipulate children's behavior. P. 2

3.1.3. Selfish and only concerned about what I want and need. P. 3

3.1.4. Does not take into consideration the needs of others. P. 3

3.2. Intellectual hetermonomy

3.2.1. Unquestionably believing everything you are told, to include propaganda, illogical conclusions, and slogans. P. 4

3.2.2. Children are taught to distrust their own thinking. P. 6

3.2.3. Children who are discouraged from thinking will construct less knowledge than those who are mentally active and alert. P. 6

4. Summarization of article by Constance Kamii

4.1. English

4.1.1. Text book p. 55-60

4.1.2. Joseph Conrad "Heart of Darkness"

5. Moral Autonomy

5.1. Having the ability to govern oneself

5.1.1. Children who are morally autonomous are better able to make decisions for themselves. P. 2

5.1.2. Taking into account the needs of oneself and how it will affect others when making a decision. P. 2

5.2. Based on a sense of morality - what is right and wrong.

5.2.1. Piaget believes that many people stop developing at a lower level, and very few achieve fully moral characteristics. P. 2

5.2.2. Evidenced by the accounts of corruption of government, and the incidences of murder, theft, and assault that take place within society. P. 2

5.3. People who are autonomous realize that lying is bad regardless of whom is being lied too, punishment, or reward. P. 2

5.4. How do children become more autonomous adults?

5.4.1. Adults reinforce autonomy when they exchange viewpoints with children. P.2

5.4.2. Children must be encouraged to construct moral values for themselves. P. 3 Piaget believes that children develop moral values by constructing them from within, and through interactions with the environment. P. 4

5.5. Punishment is not avoidable!!!

5.5.1. The punishment must fit the crime. In other words, Punishment must be directly related to the acts that we wish to discourage in order to have meaning and be effective. P. 3

5.5.2. Four of the six types of sanctions by reciprocity recognized by Piaget P. 3-4 Temporary or permanent exclusion from the group. The child must be given a choice, and ability to determine when they feel they are able to rejoin the group. Calling the child's attention to the direct and material consequences of their actions. Depriving the child of the thing that has been misused. Provide restitution for behavior or deed Help children see the other person's point of view Develop a safe, and trusting atmosphere where children feel safe with owning up to mistakes, and can provide restitution.

5.5.3. Sanctions can become punishments if mutual affection and respect are not involved. P.4 Children need to feel respected in order to develop for their own contributions in order to return the respect.

6. Punishment

6.1. Calculation of risks P.3

6.1.1. Child repeats he same behavior but will try to avoid being caught.

6.1.2. Child will determine whether or not the pleasure of the act will be worth the risks associated with being punished.

6.2. Blind Conformity P. 3

6.2.1. Find security and respectability by conforming to parents, authorities, wishes.

6.2.2. Do not have to make decisions, just have to obey.

6.3. Revolt P. 3

6.3.1. Children who become tired of obeying, and pleasing other people often revolt.

6.3.2. Try to break free from control of others to become their own person.

6.3.3. May participate in unhealthy behaviors, or become delinquent.

6.3.4. Opposing conformity does not mean that a person is becoming Autonomous.

7. Problems with our schools

7.1. Low test scores, physical violence, alcohol and drug abuse, alienation, and vandalism. P. 1

7.2. Focus is on transmitting knowledge and values from one generation to the next. P. 1

7.3. Do not teach students to think for themselves, but require them to memorize materials required for tests. P. 7

7.4. Reinforce rules and standards that are determined by adults.

7.4.1. Use Gold stars, grades, detention hall, merits, demerits, and awards to reinforce behaviors.